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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Textbook Notes for Psychological Science.docx

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

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Themes of psychology: - Psychological science = the study of mind, brain, and behavior (5) - Psychology is an empirical science (6) - Nature and nurture are inextricably intertwined (7) - The brain and mind are inseparable (7) - Anew biological revolution is energizing research (9) - The first major development is a growing understanding of brain chemistry (9) - Scientists have also mapped the human genome and have figures out how to assess the human brain (10) - The mind is adaptive (10) - Evolutionary theory = emphasizes the inherited adaptive value of behavior and mental activity throughout the history of a species (10) - Natural selection = those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their environments have a selective advantage over those that do not (10) - Psychological science crosses levels of analysis (13) - The biological level of analysis deals with how the physical body contributes to mind and behavior (13) - The individual level of analysis focusses on individual differences in personality and in the mental processes that affect how people perceive and know the world (13) - The social level of analysis involves how group contexts affect people’s ways of interacting and influencing each other (13) - The cultural level of analysis explores how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are similar or different across cultures (13) - We are often unaware of the multiple influences on how we think, feel and act (14) History of psychology: - Psychology as a science developed throughout the 1800s when John Stuart Mill proposed that it should leave the realm of philosophy and enter the realm of science (17) - Structuralism began with Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 (17) - He realized that different actions in the brain take different amounts of time to occur, so he would give subjects a simple task and a complex task and subtract the time it took to do a simple task from the time it took him to do a compl
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