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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - psy100.pdf

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Chapter 3: Biological Foundations: Synesthesia: cross sense experience Behavioural genetics: the study of how genes and environment interact to influence psychological activity. Neurons, three functions: • Taking in information from neighboring neurons (reception) • Integrating those signals (conduction) • Passing signals to other neurons (transmission) Three major events that terminates the transmitters’ influence in the synaptic cleft • Reuptake: neurotransmitters are taken back into the Presynaptic terminal buttons. • Enzyme deactivation: an enzyme destroys the transmitter substance in the synaptic cleft. Different enzyme destroys different neurotransmitters. • Autoreceptors: when excess is detected, the autoreceptors signal the Presynaptic neuron to stop releasing neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters Influence Mind and Behaviour: • Drugs and Toxins can also mimic neurotransmitters and bind with their receptors as if they were the real thing. i.e. Heroin and cocaine. • Types of neurotransmitters: Ach, excites skeleton muscles and inhibits heart muscles. Botulism, a form of food poisoning inhibits the release of Ach, leading difficulty in breathing and chewing and often to death. Botox • Monoamines: regulate states of arousal and affect and to motivate behaviour. o Epinephrine: energy o Norepinephrine: arousal and vigilance (alert) o Serotonin: Emotional States and impulsiveness; dreaming. Leaving it in the synapse to bind with postsynaptic neurons can treat depression o Dopamine: reward and motivation; motor control over voluntary moveme nt. o GABA: slow down o Glutamate: speed up o Endorphins natural pain reduction; reward. Painkilling effect. o Substance P: pain perception Basic Brain Structure and Their Functions: • Two functional units: Central Nervous System & Peripheral Nervous System • Phineas Gage: p
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