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Chapter 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Consciousness:   • subjective experience of the world • 2 types: o Contents : thing that we conscious o Level: state of our consciousness – ex: coma, sleep, wakefulness • States: o Conscious  Awareness : thinking  Intention: action o Unconsciousness • Dual: o View of consciousness o mind is physically distinct from the brain o => Reject dualism – Mind & body is in-separated Consciousness = subject experience • Qualia: o describe the properties of our subject experience - ex: perception of things o difficult to study experience o ex: monkey control robot arm through their neuron signal • Coma : o Persistent vegetative state: unconsciousness state last for a month -> BUT brain can still process information o Between vegetative state vs full consciousness -> is minimally conscious state -> make deliberately movement  Stimulate thalamus -> increase movement in minimal conscious state • Splitting Brain o Treatment of epilepsy -> remove part of seizure o Corpus callosum: the part connection between to 2 hemispheres of brain o Split brain: remove corpus callosum -> 2 part of brain disconnected  Problem: • image from left hemisphere -> goes from right eyes • left hemisphere -> control right hands • left hemisphere dominate for language o right hemisphere for spatial relationship o both hemisphere for cognitive process • interpreter : left hemisphere process to make sense event for us -> make up explanation even does NOT know what right hemisphere see – • interpreter speculate: o Left hemisphere => force people to predict pattern that NOT even exit o Ex: push a button when red light flash – 70% frequency  Animal choose 100 % red light -> received 70% correct  Human choose 70% red light -> received 58% correct Unconscious Process Influence Behavior • Subliminal perception = unconscious cue o Influence cognition o Subliminal images – produce in limbic system (emotion & motivation)  Subliminal cue -> powerful for motivational state o People affected by event (stimulus ) – they ‘re NOT aware of o Freudian slip: unconscious thought – is Suddenly express at in appropriate time/ social context o Smart unconscious:  Common sense: Consciously thinking about problem & option is best strategy -> making decision  Science prove: NOT consciously thinking -> making Best decision  Verbal overshadowing: performance impairment – occur when people try to explain verbally their perceptual experience Brain Activity Produce Consciousness: • Blind-sight: o Damage visual system – continue show evidence of some sight – BUT unaware of being able to see at all o Loss portion of visual field o Other part of brain will take loss part function  Amygdala – perceive subliminal image (danger, happy....)  Ex: blind man could guess the emotional of faces (angry, happy) BUT he could NOT get when face is neutral o Global workspace model: conscious arises as a function – brain circuit are active Altered Consciousness • 3 states in action: o Hypnosis  Social interaction during which a person • Respond to suggestion, experience • Change in memory, perception  Post hypnosis: • People change in their behaviour & memory • Forget about the instruction  Highly work for suggestible person (easily to absorb in activity, imagination)  Sociocognitive
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