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Chapter 6

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Learning: enduring behaviour -> result from experience Conditioning: process environment stimuli & behaviour become connect Classical conditioning (Pavlovian condition) Classical conditioning: • Neutral object elicit a reflective (phản ánh) response • When it is associated with a Stimulus that already process that response Salivary reflex: automatic & unlearned respond- occur when food stimulus is presented to hunger animal (human) Unconditional response (UR): that NOT have to learn – ex: reflex (phản xạ)  Unconditional stimulus: stimulus that elicit UR (without leaning) Conditional responds (CR) : has been learning  Conditional stimulus: stimulus that elicit a response ONLY after learning have occured Note: CR is WEAKER than UR Ex: in dog experiment • Unconditional stimulus: food • 1 : Neutral stimulus : clicking metronome nd • 2 Conditional stimulus: clicking metronome (neutral stimulus become condition stimulus after training with food (US) • Both unconditional & conditional responds: salvation nd Ex 2 : watch frighten movie • US: the scary sense • CS: music (that create anxious after u hear it) -> later when you hear it again on radio with watch movie – STILL feel tension –> classically conditioned Acquisition: • Gradual formation of an association • Between CS & US • Note: o Contiguity: stimulus that occurred together in time o Stronger condition responded: if there is brief delay between CS & US ( CS occurred before US • Ex: animal learning to seek food after rain b/c plant boom after rain o Rain is CS o Plant bloom is US Principles: 1. Extinction: CRespond is weaker/diminishing if CS is repeated without US a. Spontaneous recovery: i. Later, extinguish CS again produce CR is temporary & fade quickly ii. Unless CS is paired with US – even a single US 2. Stimulus generation: stimulus Similar But NOT identical to CStimulus will generate CR 3. Stimulus discrimination: differentia between 2 stimulus if one consistent with US & another is not a. Ex: one plant is edible, another is position Note: • Second order conditioning: o CS associated with other stimuli which associated with US o NOT directly associate with US o Occur implicitly & unawareness o Ex: the black square trait Without food -> still stimulus salvation response o Ex 2: Money is paper & cheap mental -> but mean sth entirely different o Ex 3: celebrities advertise product -> represent power, famous... Disorder: Phobia: fear of neutral object that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object - Ex: 9yrs old experiment white rat – 1 he reach it normally -> but experiment smashing loud sound consistently when he reached white rat -> Later, scared white rat without hearing sound o US: smashing loud sound -> UR: fear o CS : white rate o US + CS => CR: fear white rate without hearing sound - Counter – conditioning: To remove phobia -> present small dose of neutral object with pleasure things o Systematic desentization: relax – image subject. CS -> CR1 (fear) but now reverse CS -> CR2 (pleasant) Fear conditioning: fear of neutral object (usually in animal) - Repeatedly experiment flash light follow electrical shock -> their heart rate change when later see flash light - Amygdala: responsible for fear condition – without amygdale NOT experiment fear condition Drug Addiction: - Environment -> condition craving - Heroin: Activate prefrontal cortex & limbic system – associate with reward - addicts need more drug to have same effect - Tolerant is greatest when drug is taken in same location Other Factor effect Classical contition: - Evolutionary significant: any objects occur in condition trial -> convert to CS o NOT all are equally effective o Ex: color, tone, light could be associate with US o Condition food aversion: people respond to avoid food that they think make them ill even cause maybe belong to the food o Biological preparedness: fear of specific object associated with danger  Auditory & visual stimuli are major in environment – Rat = auditory &taste. Bird = visual  Ex: monkey fear of snake instead of rabbit or flower  Ex: people feel more danger with out-group members / different races - Gender: o Influence by evolutionary influence on learning o Learning navigate  Female depend on landmark  Male keep track of compass - Cognitive perspective: o Classical condition = animal learn to predict event => cognitive perspective o Rescorla – Wagner model: cognitive classical learning  Strength of CS-US is depend on the extent US is Unexpected -> pay more attention on Unexpected CS  Novel stimulus more associated with US than familiar stimulus  Blocking effect: prevent acquisition new stimulus • Ex: dog learn smell of almond is good predictor of food -> will NOT learn about other predictors  Occasion setter: addition trigger for CS • Ex: dog learns smell of almond with sound -> food, sound associated with almond’s smell & food Operant Conditionings: Instrumental conditioning – done for a purpose Operant condition: • Consequence of action determine • The chance it will occur in future Law of effect: Thorndlike • Any behaviour lead to “satisfying state of affair” => occur again • Any behavior lead to “annoying state of affair” => less like to occur again • Ex: puzzle box o Cat inside the case o There is specific action to open the door – pull the string o Stimulate with food o => cat learn to pull the string faster each time to get outside B.F. Skinner Reinforce: • a stimulus occur after response • increase the likelihood that response will be repeated • types of reinforce: o primary reinforce: satisfy biological need – food water o secondary reinforce: establish through classical condition o positive reinforcement: add stimulus that increase the probability of action – ex: reward o negative reinforcement: removal stimulus that increase the probability of action - escape or void an unwanted stimulus  ex: • rat press button to turn of electrical shock • you close the door prevent noise • power degree of reinforces o some reinforce powerful than other o depend on length of time doing in specific behaviour • Shaping: o Reinforcing behavior that o Increasing similar to the desired behaviour o Use to train animal perform
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