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PSYB20 Term 1

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Diane Mangalindan

Chapter 1: Child Development: Themes, Theories, and Methods Child development: a field of study that seeks to account for the gradual evolution of the child's cognitive, social, and other capacities first by describing changes in the child's observed behaviours and then by uncovering the processes and strategies that underlie these changes. THEMES OF DEVELOPMENT Three main aspects of development - biological, cognitive, and linguistic Origins of Behaviour: Biological vs. Environmental Influences Maturation: a genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of time Biological influence: one's development is internally based (happens naturally) Environmental influence: one's development relies on his/her surroundings and changes accordingly Pattern of Developmental Change: Continuity vs. Discontinuity Continuity: development is a smooth and gradual accumulation of abilities. Changes add to or build on earlier abilities in a cumulative or quantitative way without any abrupt shifts from one change to the next. Discontinuity: development is abrupt and step-like; qualitatively improving Forces That Affect Developmental Change: Individual Characteristics vs. Contextual/Cultural Influences Individual characteristics are the natural traits of the person. Contextual and cultural influences tell us that a person's traits may only apply in certain environments (i.e. contexts) THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON DEVELOPMENT Structural-Organismic Perspectives Freud was interested in emotions and personality, Piaget was interested in thinking. structural-organismic perspective: theoretical approaches that describe psychological structures and processes that undergo qualitative or stage-like changes over the course of development (both Freud and Piaget thought that organisms went through discontinuous changes) Psychodynamic Theory psychodynamic theory: Freud's theory that development, which proceeds in discrete stages, is determined largely by biologically based drives shaped by encounters with the environment and through the interaction of three components of personality: id, ego, and superego  id: the person's instinctual drives; the first component of the personality to evolve, the id operates on the basis of the pleasure principle  ego: the rational, controlling component of personality, which tries to satisfy needs through appropriate, socially acceptable behaviours  superego: the personality component that is the repository of the child's internalization of parental or societal values, morals, and roles Freudian Development:  Oral (0-1 years): focus on eating and putting things in mouth  Anal (1-3): emphasis in potty training; first experience with discipline and authority  Phallic (3-6): increase in sexual urges arouses curiosity and alerts children to gender differences; gender identity  Latency (6-12): sexual urges repressed; emphasis on education and the beginnings of concern for others  genital (adolescence & adulthood): altruistic love joins selfish love; need for reproduction of species underlies adoption of adult responsibilities Eriksonian Development (Psychosocial Theory)  Infancy (0-1): Task: to develop basic trust in oneself and others. Risk: mistrust of others, lack of confidence  early childhood (1-3): Task: learn self-control and establish autonomy. Risk: shame and doubt about one's own capabilities  play age (3-6): task: to develop initiative in mastering environment. Risk: Feelings of guilt over aggressiveness and daring  school age (6-12): Task: develop industry. Risk: Feelings of inferiority over real or imagined failure to master tasks  adolescence (12-20): task: to achieve a sense of identity. Risk: role confusion over who and what person wants to be  young adulthood (20-30) Task: achieve intimacy with others. Risk: Shaky identity may lead to avoidance of others and isolation  adulthood (30-65): Task: express oneself through generativity. Risk: inability to create children, ideas, or products may lead to stagnation  mature age (65+): Task: achieve sense of integrity. Risk: Doubts and unfulfilled desires may lead to despair Piagetian Theory piagetian theory: a theory of cognitive development that sees the chid as actively seeking new info and incorporating it into his knowledge base through the processes of assimilation and accommodation  sensorimotor stage  preoperational stage  concrete operational stage  formal operational stage Learning Perspectives Behaviourism Behaviourism: a school of psychology that holds that theories of behaviour must be based on direct observations of actual behaviour and not on speculations about such unobservable things as human motives Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which people learn to respond to unfamiliar stimuli in the same way they are accustomed to respond to familiar stimuli if the two are repeatedly presented together Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which learning depends on the consequences of behaviour; rewards increase likelihood that a behaviour will recur, punishment decrease that likelihood Cognitive Social Learning Theory Cognitive social learning theory: a learning theory that stresses learning by observation and imitation mediated by cognitive processes and skills. The child must attend, retain, reproduce, and be motivated (Bandura's model of observational learning) Information Processing Approaches Information-processing approaches: theories of development that focus on the flow of information through the child's cognitive system and particularly on the specific operations the child performs between input and stimulus phases.  outputs can be an action, decision, or simply a memory Dynamic Systems Perspectives dynamic systems theory: a theory that proposes that individuals develop and function within systems; it studies the relationships among individuals and systems and the processes by which these relationships operate Contextual Perspectives sociocultural theory: a theory of development, proposed by Vygotsky, that sees development as evolving out of children's interactions with more skilled people in their social environment. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory: stresses the importance of understanding not only the relationships between the organism (child) and various environmental systems but also the relations among such systems themselves microsystem: the context in which children live and interact with the people and institutions closest to them, such as parents, peers and school mesosystem: the interrelations that occur among the components of the microsystem which the child reacts (parents reacting with peers, teachers) exosystem: the collection of settings that impinge on a child's development but in which the child does not play a direct role (parent's work) macrosystem: the system that surrounds the microsystem , mesosystem, exosystem, and that represents the values, ideologies, and laws of the society or culture chronosystem: the time-based dimension that can alter the operation of all other levels The Lifespan Perspective lifespan perspective: a theory that sees development as a process that continues throughout the life cycle from infancy through adulthood and old age age cohort: people born within the same generation Ethological and Evolutionary Approaches Ethological Theory: a theory that holds that behaviour must be viewed and understood as occurring in a particular context and as having adaptive or survival value  emotional expressions are similar across various cultures Evolutionary psychology: an approach which holds that critical components of psychological functioning reflect evolutionary changes and are critical to the survival of the species (major impact on the study of cognition and cognitive development) RESEARCH METHODS IN CHILD PSYCHOLOGY scientific method: the use of measurable and replicable techniques in framing hypotheses and collecting and analyzing data to test a theory's usefulness Selecting a Sample sample: a group of people who are representative of a larger population representativeness: the degree to which a sample actually possesses the characteristis of the larger population if represents national survey: a method of sampling in which a very large, nationally representative group of people are selected for a particular study Methods of Gathering Data About Children self-report: information that people provide about themselves, either in a direct interview or in some written form like a questionnaire direct observation: a method of observation in which researchers go into settings in the natural world or bring participants into the laboratory to observe behaviours of interest structured observation: a form of observation in which researchers structure a situation so that behaviours they wish to study are more likely to occur external validity: the degree to which the results of an experiment can be easily generalized outside immediate context of the study converging operations: a research strategy in which a variety of research techniques are used to investigate or converge upon a particular experimental or research result Research Design: Establishing Patterns and Causes Correlational method: a research design that permits investigations to establish relations among variables as well as the strength of those relations Experimental Designs laboratory experiment: a research design that allows investigators, through controlling variables and treatments and assigning participants randomly to treatments, to determine cause and effect experimental group: in a formal experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment (INDEPENDENT VARIABLE) control group: in a formal experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment random assignment: the technique by which researchers assign people randomly to either an experimental or a control group independent variable: the factor that researchers manipulate in an experiment (on purpose) dependent variable: the factor that researchers expect to change as a function of change in the IV ecological validity: the degree to which a research study accurately represents events and processes that occur in the natural world field experiment: an experiment in which researchers deliberately create a change in a real-world setting and then measure the outcome of their manipulation baseline measure: initial observation observer bias: the tendency of researchers to be influenced in their judgments by their knowledge of the hypotheses guiding the research natural experiment: an experiment in which researchers measure results of events that occur naturally in the real world case study method: a form of research in which investigators study individual persons Studying Change over Time cross-sectional method: researchers compare groups of people of DIFFERENT AGE levels at approximately the SAME POINT IN TIME longitudinal method: a method in which investigators study the SAME PEOPLE repeatedly at VARIOUS TIMES in their lives sequential method: combines both cross-sectional and longitudinal informed consent: agreement to participate in study that is based on a clear and full understanding of the purposes and procedures of that study Chapter 2 - Heredity and the Environment genotype: the particular set of genes that a person inherits from her parents phenotype: created by the interaction of a person's genotype with the environment; the visible expression of the person's particular physical and behavioural characteristics THE PROCESS OF GENETIC TRANSMISSION ovum: the female germ cell (egg) sperm: male germ cell Chromosomes and Genes chromosomes: thread-like structures, located in the nucleus, that carry genetic info to help direct development  46 chromosomes, 23 pairs from each parent  homologous: similar in shape and function meiosis: the process by which a germ cell divides to produce new germ cells with only half the normal complement of chromosomes; thus, male and female germ cells each contain only 23 chromosomes so that when they unite, the new organism they form will have 46 chromosomes, half from each parent  crossing over: the process by which equivalent sections of homologous chromosomes switch places randomly, shuffling the genetic info each carries mitosis: the process in which a body cell divides in two, first duplicating its chromosomes so that the new, daughter cells contain the usual 46 chromosomes autosomes: the 22 paired non-sex chromosomes Genes, DNA, and Proteins deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): a ladder-like molecule that stores genetic info in cells and transmits it during reproduction nucleotide: a compound containing a nitrogen base, a simple sugar, and a phosphate group gene: a portion of DNA that is located at particular site on a chromosome and that codes or the production of certain kinds of proteins proteins: fundamental components of all living cells, and are any of a group of complex organic molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur, and that are composed of one or more chains of amino acids GENETIC INFLUENCES ON DEVELOPMENT The Transmission of Traits: A Basic Model  principle of segregation: each inherited trait comes from one's parent as a separate unit (flower colour, stem height)  principle of independent assortment: the inheritance of various traits occurs independently of one another (flower colour has nothing to do with stem height) allele: an alternative form of a gene; typically, a gene has two alleles, one inherited from the person's mother and one from the father homozygous: describing the state of a person whose alleles for a particular trait from each parent are THE SAME heterozygous: describing the state of a person whose alleles for a particular trait from each parent are DIFFERENT co-dominance: a genetic pattern in which heterozygous alleles express the variants of the trait for which they code simultaneously and with equal force (shows both but don't blend) dominant: describing he more powerful of two alleles in a heterozygous combination recessive: describing the weaker of two alleles in a heterozygous combination Genes on the Sex Chromosomes: Exceptions to the Rule sex chromosomes: in both males and females, the 23rd pair of chromosomes which determine the person's gender and are responsible for sex-related characteristics; females XX, males XY x-linked genes: genes that are carried on the X chromosome and that may have no analogous genes on the Y chromosome in males haemophilia: a disorder caused by an x-linked recessive gene, in which the blood fails to clot; found more often in males than in females Interactions among Genes modifier genes: genes that exert their influence indirectly, by affecting the expression of still other genes (e.g. cataract development) ****Genetic disorders on pg 51-52**** Genetic disorders Why Harmful Alleles Survive: harmful alleles survive because they are not harmful in the heterozygous state Phenylketonuria (PKU): a disease caused by a recessive allele that fails to produce an enzyme necessary to metabolize the protein phenylalanine; if untreated immediately at birth, it damages the nervous system and causes mental retardation sickle cell anemia: a disorder, caused by a recessive gene, in which the red blood cells become distorted when low in oxygen, causing fatigue, shortness of breath, and severe pain, and posing a threat to life from blockage of crucial blood vessels down syndrome: a form of chromosome abnormality, in which the person suffers disabling physical and mental development and is highly susceptible to such illnesses as leukemia, heart disorders, and respiratory infections (EXTRA 21st chromosome)  happens when older women get pregnant, father's age matters as well  person with DS has difficultly articulating words, producing sentences Turner syndrome: a form of abnormality of the sex chromosomes found in females, in which secondary sex characteristics develop only if female hormones are administered and in which abnormal formation of internal reproductive organs leads to permanent sterility Klinefelter's syndrome: a form of chromosome abnormality, in which a male inherits an extra X sex chromosome, resulting in the XXY pattern, and has many feminine physical characteristics as well as language deficits and sometimes mental retardation fragile X syndrome: a form of chromosome abnormality, more common in males than in females, where an X chromosome is narrowed in some areas, causing it to be fragile and leading to a variety of physical, psychological, and social problems GENETIC COUNSELLING AND GENETIC ENGINEERING genetic counselling: health care service that provides medical info about genetic disorders and risks to couples, and that can help people to make personal decisions regarding health/pregnancies/children Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Commonly Used Tests amniocentesis: a technique for sampling and assessing fetal cells for indications of abnormalities in the developing fetus; performed by inserting a needle through the abdominal wall and into the amniotic sac and with drawing a small amount of the amniotic fluid chorionic villi sampling: a technique for sampling and assessing cells withdrawn from the chorionic villi, which are projections from the chorion that surrounds the amniotic sac; cells are withdrawn either through the vagina or through a needle inserted through the abdominal wall Huntington disease: a genetically caused fatal disorder of the nervous syste that begins in the mid- adulthood and is anifested chiefly in uncontrollable, spasmodic movements of the body and limbs and eventual mental deterioration alphafetoprotein assay (AFP): a blood test performed prenatally to detect such problems as DS, the presence of multiple embryos and defects of the CNS ultrasound: a tecnique that uses sound waves to visualize deep body structures; commonly used to reveal the size and structure of a developing fetus Gene Therapy: inserting normal alleles into patients' cells to compensate for defective alleles HEREDITY-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS How the Environment Influences the Expession of Genes range of reaction: the notion that the human being's genetic makeup establishes a range of possible developmental outcomes, within which environmental forces largely determine how the person actually develops canalization: the genetic restriction of a phenotype to a small number of developmental outcomes, permitting environmental influences to play only a small role in these outcomes babbling: baby's tendency to repetitively utter consonant-voewl combinations  intelligence is less highly canalized How Genetic Makeup Helps Shape the Environment Three types of environmental interaction passive genetic-environmental interaction: the interactive environment created by PARENTS with particular genetic predispositions who encourage the expression of these tendencies in their children (e.g. well-educated parents would provide books) evocative genetic-environmental interaction: the expression of the gene's influence on the environment through a person's INHERITED TENDENCIES to evoke certain environmental responses (e.g.babies with smile often will elicit positive stimulation than serious-looking infants) active genetic-environmental intereaction: a kind of interaction in which people's genes encourage them to seek out experience compatible with their inherited tendencies  niche picking: seeking out or creating environmentsthat are compatible with one's own predispositions HEREDITY, ENVIRONMENT, AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES human behaviour genetics: the study of the relative influences of heredity and environmental forces on the evolution of individual differences in traits and abilities heritability factor: a statistical estimate of the contribution made by heredity to a particular trait or ability Misconceptions  Genes limit potential  strong genetic effects mean that environmental influences aren't important  nature and nurture are separate  genetic influences diminish with age  genes regulate only static characteristics Methods of Studying Individual Differences  adoption studies  twin studies: monozygotic: characterizing identical twins, who have developed from a single fertilized egg; dizygotic: characterizing fraternal twins, who have developed from two separate fertilized eggs shared environment: a set of conditions or experiences that is shared by children raised in the same family with each other; a parameter commonly examined in studies of individual differences non-shared environment: a set of conditions or activities that is experienced by one child in a family and not shared with another child in the same family temperament: the person's typical mode of response to the environment, including such things as activity level, emotional intensity, and attention span; used particularly to describe infants' and children's behaviours  goodness of fit: a measure of the degree to which a child's temperament is matched by her environment. The more effectively parents and other agents of socialization accept and adapt to the cild's unique temperament, the better this fit Chapter 3 - Prenatal Development and Birth STAGES OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT The Zygote zygote: developing organism from the time of the union of the sperm and egg to about the 2nd week of gestation; the period of the zygote is comprised of the implantation of the fertilized egg in the wall of the uterus The Embryo embryo: the developing organism between the second and 8th weeks of gestation; the period of the embryo comprises the differentiation of the major physiological structures and systems gestation: the carrying of an embryo or fetus during pregnancy, usually for nine ponths amniotic sac: a membrane containing a watery fluid that encloses the developing organism, protecting it from physical shocks and temperature changes placenta: a fleshy, disc-like structure formed by cells from the lining of the uterus and form the zygote, and that, together with the umbilical cord, serves to protect and sustain the life of the growing organism umbilical cord: a tube that contains blood vessels that carry blood back and forth between the growing organism and its mother by way of the placenta; it carries oxygen and nutrients to the growing infant and removes carbon dioxide and waste products Prenatal development is guided by two principles: cephalocaudal: the pattern of human physical growth in which development begins in the AREA OF THE BRAIN and proceeds downward, to the trunk and legs proximal-distal: the pattern of human physical growth wherein development starts in CENTRAL AREAS SUCH AS INTERNAL ORGANS, and proceeds to more distant areas, such as arms and legs  embryo is recognized as a human at 6 weeks miscarriages: the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy before the infant is capable or survival outside the womb and generally defined in humans as prior to 20 weeks gestation  miscarriage rate can be as high as 1 in 4 The Fetus fetus: the developing organism from the 3rd month of gestation through delivery; during the fetal period, development of bodily structures and systems becomes complete. It has all of its body parts lanugo: a fine, soft hair that covers the fetus's body from a
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