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PSYB20 Term 2

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Diane Mangalindan

CHAPTER 8 - COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET AND VYGOTSKY cognition: the mental activity through which human beings acquire and process knowledge PIAGET'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Piaget made two important observations from the IQtests. First, he noticed children of the same age tended to get the same answers wrong. Second, he observed that theerrors of children of a particular age differed in systematicways from those of older or younger children • he used interviews and observations to study children's thinking Piaget's theory: over development, the child acquires qualitativelynew ways of thinking and understanding the world PIAGET'S MAIN TENET: THE CHILD ACTIVELY SEEKS KNOWLEDGE constructivist view: the idea that children actively create their understanding of the world as they encounter new info and have new experiences Cognitive Organization • Piaget thought that children's knowledge of the world gets organized into increasingly more complex cognitive structures (interrelated memories, thoughts, and strats thatchild uses in trying to understand a situation) schema: an organized unit of knowledge that the child usesto try to understand a situation; a schema forms the basis for organizing actions to respond to the environment organization: combining simple mental structures into more complex systems operations: schemas based on internal mental activities Cognitive Adaptation adaptation: the person's tendency to adjust to environmental demands • adaptation involves determining how new info fits and how existing info may need to change to incorporate new info assimilation: moulding a new experience to fit an existing way ofresponding to the environment accommodation: modifying an existing way of responding to the environment to fit the characteristics of a new experience THE STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT stages of development: comprehensive, qualitative changes over time in theway a child thinks Sensorimotor Stage:Piaget's first stage in cognitive development, during which children move form purely reflexive behaviour to the beginnings of symbolic and thought/goal-directed behaviours(0-2 years) object permanence: the notion that entities external to the child (objects, people) continue to exist independent of the child's seeing or interacting with them 6 stages of the sensorimotor stage: 1. basic reflex activity (birth-1mth):an infant's exercise of and growing proficiency inthe use of innate reflexes (grasping goes from a reflex to a voluntary action) 2. primary circular reactions (1-4mth):behaviours in which infants repeat and modify actions that focus on their own bodies and that are pleasurableand satisfying (finger sucking) 3. secondary circular reactions: (4-8mth) behaviours focused on objects outside the infants own body that the infant repeatedly engages in becausethey are pleasurable (shaking a rattle) 4. coordination of secondary schemata (8-12mth):an infant's combination of different schemes to achieve a specific goal (combining hitting and reaching/grasping schemas to move a toy out of the way to grab another one) 5. tertiary circular reactions (12-18 mth):behaviours in which infants experiment with the properties of external objects and try to learn howobjects respond to various actions (dropping objects at different heights to see what happens) 6. inventing new means by mental combination (18-24mth): last stage of the sensorimotor period where children begin to combine schemes mentally, thus relying on physical trial and error deferred imitation: mimicry of an action sometime after having observed it; requires that the child has stored a mental image of the action New Research Directions and Explanations of Knowledge in Infancy • investigators say because of developmental limits,like poor hand-eye, some children who have acquired the object concept may be unable to revealit in manual search activities core knowledge systems:ways of reasoning about ecologically important objects and events, such as the solidity and continuity of objects The Preoperational Stage preoperational stage: in this period, the symbolic function promotes thelearning of language; the period is also marked by egocentricity and intuitive behaviour, in which the child can solve problems using mental operations but cannot explain how shedid so symbolic function: ability to use symbols, such as images, words, andgestures, to represent objects and events in the real world Preconceptual Substage (2-4yr) preconceptual substage: the first substage of Piaget's preoperational period, during which the child's thought is characterized by animistic thinking andegocentricity animistic thinking: attribution of life to inanimate objects egocentrism: the tendency to view the world from one's own perspective and to have difficulty seeing things from another's viewpoint Intuitive Substage (4-7yr) intuitive substage: the 2nd substage of the preoperational period, during which the child begins to solve problems by means of specific mental operations butcan't explain how she arrives at the solutions • if a child is given 7 toy dogs and 3 toy cats, he can say there are more cats than dogs. When asked if there are more dogs than animals, he saysthere are more dogs (doesn't answer correctly) The Main Limitations of Preoperational Thought • the main limitation in preoperational thinking is that the child is semi-logical conservation: the understanding that altering an object's o a substance's appearance does not change its basic attributes or properties reversibility: the notion that one can reverse or undo a given operation, either physically or mentally ends-over-means focus:conservation of only the end state of a problem inevaluating an event; failure to consider the mean by which that end state was obtained centration: centring one's attention on only one dimension or characteristic of an object/situation (children using vertical height as an indicator of"how big" something is) The Stage of Concrete Operations concrete operations stage: period in which the child acquires such concepts asconservation and classification and can reason logically • children can classify or sort objects according toseveral attributes (flowers by type/colour) The Stage of Formal Operations formal operations stage: the period in which the child becomes capable of flexible and abstract thought, complex reasoning, and hypothesis testing • begins at 11 or 12 • children can review alternatives in various situations PIAGETIAN CONCEPTS AND SOCIAL COGNITION The Self as Distinct from Others • babies seem to expect certain behaviours from people • after a few months, infants learn to differentiatetheir own movements from movements from another person Role Taking: Understanding Others' Perspective • 0: egocentric perspective • 1: differentiated perspective • 2: reciprocal perspective • 3: mutual perspectives • 4: societal or in-depth perspectives Theory of Mind theory of mind: understanding of the mind and how it works Do Sociocultural Experiences Influence the Development of Social Cognition? • Piaget's research was limited because his findingscould be modified by social and cultural factors • Perner and colleagues found that young children whohave more siblings with whom they interact perform better on false-belief tasks • Theory of Mind tasks were completed successfully across different cultures AN EVALUATION OF PIAGET'S THEORY Strengths of the Theory • integrated a wide array of info and led to new research by stimulating hypotheses and defining new areas of study • integrated a broad spectrum of concepts of the physical world (conservation, classification, number) into a single theory Limitations of the Theory • Piaget may have underestimated the timing or onsetof children's cognitive abilities • some children understand aspects of object permanence earlier than others • cognitive development may not occur in the stage-like steps that Piaget proposed horizontal declage: the term Piaget used to describe unevenness in children's thinking within a particular stage VYGOTSKY'S SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • focuses on the influence of the social and culturalworld on cognitive development mediators: according to Vygotsky, psychological tools and signs, like language, counting, mnemonic devices, algebraic symbols, art and writing. • mediators permit the child to become more effectivein solving problems and understanding the world Elementary and Higher Mental Functions elementary mental functions: functions which by the child is endowed with by nature, including attention, perception, and memory higher mental functions: functions that rely on mediators that have become increasingly sophisticated through the child's interaction with his environment The Zone of Proximal Development zone of proximal development (ZPD):according to Vygotsky, the difference between the developmental level a child has reached and the level she is potentially capable of reaching with the guidance or collaboration of a more skilled adult scaffolding: based on Vygotsky's thought, an instructional process in which the teacher continually adjusts the amount and type of support the offers as the child continues to develop more sophisticated skills reciprocal instruction: a tutoring approach based on the ideas of the zoneof proximal development and scaffolding community of learners: an approach to classroom learning in which adults and children work together in shared activities, peers learn from each other,and the teacher serves as a guide guided participation: learning that occurs as children participate in activities of their community and are guided in their participation by the actions ofmore experienced partners in the setting intent community participation:children's participation in the authentic activities of their community with the purpose of learning about the activity Egocentric Speech as a Cognitive Aid egocentric speech: according to Vygotsky, a form of self-directed dialogue by which the child instructs herself in solving problems and formulating plans; as the child matures, this becomes internalized as inner speech inner speech: internalized egocentric speech that continues to direct and regulate intellectual functioning EVALUATION OF VYGOTSKY'S THEORY Vygotsky drew attention to the importance of the social context in which learning and the evolution of cognitive skills take place and to the influence ofpeers and adults on the child's development. He pointed out that the particularities of a given culture determine the nature and manner of functioningof the societal institutions that influence how children think and learn Vygotsky's theory does not provide the richness ofdetail that Piaget's approach offers, and he didn't provide the kinds of specific tools for research that Piagt's many tests and experiments have given us. Vygotsky's approach offers only a general outline of cognitive development; in its emphasis on the social and cultural aspects of learning and cognition, however, it challenges future researchers to explore the role of context in greater depth CHAPTER 9 - COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: THE INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACH INFORMATION-PROCESSING THEORY information-processing approach:a perspective on cognition and cognitive development in which the human mind is likened to a computer, processing info from the environment through perception and attention (input), encoding it in memory (storage and retrieval), and applying info to the solution of problems Basic Assumptions of the Information-Processing Approach • thinking is information processing • there are mechanisms or processes of change that underlie the processing of info • cognitive development is a self-modifying process (child uses strats she has acquired from earlier problem solutions to modify her responses to a new problem) • careful task analysis is crucial (error analysis: attending to errors children make) microgenetic analysis:very detailed examination of how a child solves a problem Information-Processing Models multi-store model: a model of info processing in which info is depicted as moving through a series of processing units - sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory - in each of which it may be stored, either fleetingly or permanently sensory register (memory): the mental processing unit that receives info fromthe environment and stores it fleetingly short-term/working memory: mental processing unit in which info may be storedtemporarily; the workspace of the mind, where a decision must be made to discard info or to transfer it to permanent storage in long-term memory long term memory: the mental processing unit in which info may be stored permanently and from which it may later be retrieved Connectionist Models connectionist models: info-processing approaches that describe mental processes in terms of the interconnections of the neural network Neo-Piagetian Info-Processing Models neo-Piagetian theories:theories of cognitive development that reinterpretPiaget's concepts from an info-processing perspective executive control structure: according to Case, a mental blueprint or plan for solving a class of problems Cognitive Processes: What Are They? How Do They Contribute to Development? cognitive processes:ways that the human mental system operates on information • encoding: the transformation of info from the environment into a lasting mental representation • mental representation: info stored in some form (verbal/pictorial) in the cognitive system after the person has encountered it in the environment • strategies: conscious cognitive or behavioural activities thatare used to enhance mental performance • automatization: the process of transforming conscious, controlled behaviours into unconscious and automatic ones • generalization: the application of a strategy learned while solvinga problem in one situation to a similar problem in a new situation The Roles of the Executive Control Process and theKnowledge Base in Information Processing executive control process:a cognitive process that serves to control, guide,and monitor the success of a problem-solving approach a child uses DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SOME SIGNIFICANT COGNITIVEABILITIES Attention attention: the identification and selection of particular sensory input for more detailed processing Control of Attention • very young children can sustain their attention foronly short periods, this ability increases steadily over time • between 2-3mth, the focus of the infant's attentionshifts from the external contours of objects toward the internal features • from 3-9mth, infants show increasing control over their attention, by 9mth, infants can use attention to solve simple problems such as gettingtoys behind barriers Learning to Attend to What is Relevant selective attention: a strategy in which a person focuses on some features of the environment and ignores others • relevant info-processing increases with age for children Attention and Planning planning: the deliberate organization of a sequence of actions oriented toward achieving a goal Memory Memory and knowledge are interchangeable semantic memory: all the world knowledge and facts a person possesses episodic memory: memory for specific events, often autobiographicalin nature • the act of remembering can be intentional or unintentional • explicit memory: also called intentional memory, requires effort tostore and retrieve Basic Capacities memory span: amount of info one can hold in short-term memory processing efficiency • Case attributes child's increasing efficiency to two factors: streamlining of executive control structures (result of strategies like chunking), and biological maturation (changes in myelination of axons of neurons to increase efficiency of neural firing) processing speed: assessed by reaction time; the time it takes a person to carry out a given mental act, such as recognizing a stimulus Memory Strategies rehearsal: a memory strategy in which one repeats a number oftimes, either mentally or orally, the info one wants to remember organization: ordering info to be remembered by means of categorization and hierarchical relationships elaboration: a memory strategy in which one adds to info to makeit more meaningful and easier to place in long-term memory 3 reasons children fail to use strategies: mediation deficiency: inability to use strategies to store info in long=term memory production deficiency: inability to generate and spontaneously use memorystrategies that one knows utilization deficiency: inability to use a memory strategy that one knows Knowledge of the World world knowledge:what a child has learned from experience and knowsabout the world in general • children obtain knowledge from their own experiences, through formal/informal instruction, and via info they obtain from their society and family narrative form: a temporally sequenced account that conveys meaningabout an event autobiographical memory:a collection of memories of things that have happened to a person at a specific time or place • during social interaction, children learn much about what to remember, how to formulate their memories, and how to retain them in a retrievable form Problem Solving and Reasoning problem solving: the identification of a goal and of steps to reachthat goal Rule-Based Problem Solving • Some types of problems are solved by applying rulesthat describe the properties or elements of the problem • younger children use simpler rules and use more complex rules as they get older Solving Problems by Analogy analogy: inference that if two or more objects or situationsresemble each other in some respects, they are likely to resemble each other in yet other respects source analogue: familiar situation; target analogue:unfamiliar situation • children don't form analogies on their own, mostlyget help from other people • analogical reasoning helps the child broaden and deepen her understanding of the relations between objects and across similar types of objects Using Cognitive Tools to Solve Problems script: a mental representation of an event or situation ofdaily life, including the expected order in which things happen and how one should behave in the event or situation cognitive map: a cognitive representation of the spatial layout ofa physical or geographical place • first they acquire landmark knowledge • mental map: combining routes into an understanding of the spatial relations Deductive Reasoning deductive reasoning: logical thinking that involves reaching a necessaryand valid conclusion based on a set of premises • propositional reasoning: logical thinking that involves evaluating a statement or set of statements based on the info in the statement alone transitive inference:the mental arrangement of things along a quantitative dimension hierarchical categorization: the organization of concepts into levels of abstraction that range from the specific to the general • two factors affect children's ability to form hierarchical categories: objects that form a category have perceptual similarities and young children maytake advantage of this in forming categories. Also people use labels to denote category membership, which helps children associate words with different objects subitizing: a preattentive process in which sets of four itemsor fewer are counted or understood effortlessly, accurately, and quite rapidly METACOGNITION metacognition: the person's knowledge about knowing and her control of cognitive activities • Metacognitive knowledge, which develops over childhood, includes the child's knowledge about the self, her theory of mind, and her knowledge about the task and about specific strategies • although young children understand how some features of a task may influence memory, even grade 1 children are not good at monitoring their comprehension of info about a task. Young children are aware of the importance of memory strategies, and they are particularly sensitive to the use of external memory cues. However, olderchildren have a more accurate and realistic view of their own memory abilities, and they are able to separate their own beliefs and desires from reality AN EVALUATION OF THE INFO-PROCESSING APPROACH • on the plus side, info processing is precise about the cognitive processes involved in component operations. On the minus side, this approach is problematic in terms of integrating the different component processes into a coherent theory, and itposes questions about the validity of the computer metaphor CHAPTER 10 - INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE The Factor Analytic Approach factor analysis: a statistical procedure used to determine which ofa number of factors or scores are both closely related to each other and relatively independent of other groups of factors or scores • Charles Spearman proposed that intelligence is composed of ageneral factor (g) (general mental energy or ability that is involved in all cognitive tasks) and specific factors (s) (factors that are unique to particular cognitive tasks) • Lewis Thurstone proposed seven skills compromise intelligence:verbal meaning, perceptual speed, reasoning, number, rote memory, word fluency, and spatial visualization The Information-Processing Approach: Sternberg's Triarchic Theory triarchic theory of intelligence:a theory that proposes 3 major components of intelligent behaviour: info processing skills, experience with a particular situation, and the ability to adapt to the demands of a context successful intelligence:the ability to fit into, mould, and choose environments that best fulfill the demands of one's society and culture and one's ownneeds and desires (analytical, creative, and practical abilities) • analytical abilities include those taught and tested in school such as reasoning about the best answer to a test question • creative abilities are involved in devising new ways of addressing issues and concerns • practical abilities are used in everyday activities (work, family, social interactions) tacit knowledge: implicit knowledge that is shared by many people that guides behaviour Gardiner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences theory of multiple intelligences:Gardner's multi-factorial theory that proposes eight distinct types of intelligence: 1. linguistic: sensitivity to word meanings; mastery of syntax; appreciation of the ways language can be used 2. logical-mathematical: understanding of objects, symbols, actions that can be performed on them, and the interrelations among these actions; ability to operate in the abstract 3. spatial: accurate perception of visual world; ability to transform perceptions and mentally recreate visual experience; sensitivity to tension,balance, and composition; ability to detect similar patterns 4. musical: sensitivity to musical tones and phrases; combine tones and phrases into larger rhythms and structures; awareness of music's emotional aspects 5. bodily kinaesthetic: skilled/graceful use of one's body for expressive or goal-directed purposes; handle objects skilfully 6. intrapersonal: access to one's own feeling life; draw on one's emotions to guide and understand behaviour 7. interpersonal: ability to notice and distinguish among others' moods, temperaments, motives and intention; ability to act on this knowledge 8. naturalist: ability to understand living things TESTING INTELLIGENCE intelligence quotient (IQ):an index of the way a person performs on a standardized intelligence test relative to the way others her age perform • Three purposes to intelligence testing: predict academic performance, predicting performance on the job, assessing general adjustment and health • culture-fair test: a test that attempts to minimize cultural biases incontent that might influence the test taker's response Measuring Infant Intelligence Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID):non-verbal tests that measure specific developmental milestones and that are generally used with children who are thought to be at risk for abnormal development (mental and motor scale) Fagan test of Infant Intelligence:a test of how infants process information, including encoding attributes of objects and seeing similarities and differences across objects The Stanford-Binet Test Stanford-binet test: the modern version of the first major intelligencetest; emphasizes verbal and performance skills mental age: an index of a child's actual performance on an intelligence test as compared with her true age IQ = mental age / chronological age (i.e. actual age) x 100 The Wechsler Scales Wechsler intelligence scales: 3 intelligence tests for infants, children, and adults that yield separate scores for verbal and performance IQ as well as a combined IQ score • focuses on memory, strategy use, processing speed deviation IQ: an IQ score that indicates the extent to which a person's performance on a test deviates from agemate's average performance The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC):An intelligence test designed to measure several types of info-processing skills as well as achievement in some academic subjects • grouped into two categories: sequential processing (step-by-step problem solving) and simultaneous processing (examining and integrating a wide variety of materials in the solution of a problem) • assesses achievement in academic subjects Constructing Measures of Intelligence psychometrician: a psychologist who specializes in the constructionand use of tests designed to measure various psychological constructs, such as intelligence, motivation, achievement orientation, and personality characteristics Development of Norms and Standards test norms: values or sets of values that describe the typicalperformance of a specific group of people standardization: the process by which test constructors ensure thattesting procedures, instructions, and scoring are identical on every testing occasion Test Validity and Reliability validity: the extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure reliability: the degree to which a test yields consistent results over successive administrations Stability of Measured Intelligence Predicted Value of Infant Testing recovery: the ability to recognize a new stimulus as novel and to direct attention to it instead of a familiar stimulus Changes in Children's IQ Over Time Flynn Effect: the general trend toward an increase in average IQtest scores across subsequent generations of the 20th century WHY DO PEOPLE DIFFER IN MEASURED INTELLIGENCE? How Much of Intelligence is Inherited? Views That Emphasize the Heritability of IQ associative learning: according to Jensen, lower-level learning tapped intests of such things as short- term memorization and recall, attention, rote learning, and simple associative skills. (level I learning) cognitive learning: according to Jens
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