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Chapter 1

Ch.1 Textbook Notes- Introduction

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Semester
Winter

Description
7 themes of psychological science 1. Psychology is an empirical science -Scientific method 2. Nature and nurture and inextricably entwined -Brain’s nature can change due to nurture, can affect each other 3. The brain and mind are inseparable -Modern day psychologists believe the mind is what the brain does 4. Anew biological revolution is energizing research -Neuroscience, genomes (More to follow) 5. The mind is adaptive 6. Psychological science crosses levels of analysis 7. We often are unaware of the multiple influences on how we think, feel, and act. Characters in the Mind-Body Question -Leonardo Da Vinci --> Links brain’s anatomy to psychological functions (thoughts, judgment) -Rene Descartes --> DUALISM, mind and body are separate yet intertwined, replaced by the current notion that mind and brain are inseparable Biological advancements -Brain chemistry -Neurotransmitters and hundreds of substances affect mental activity and behaviour -Better understanding of brain’s chemical processes -The Human Genome -Understanding the genetic process’influence on life -Links genes and behaviour -Observing the Brain -Through methods of neuroscience and brain imaging -Observe patterns of brain activation --> Localization of function The mind is adaptive -Evolutionary theory--> Mind helps overcome survival problems through adaptations -Charles Darwin --> Natural selection = evolutionary theory of thinking; specialized circuits, group behaviour, adaptive mechanisms such as fear of heights, love of sweet and fatty foods -Culture plays role in paradigms and worldview -Richard Nisbett --> Westerners miss the forest for the trees, Easterners are more holistic Psychological science crosses levels of analysis -Psychologists collaborate with researchers from other fields --> Interdisciplinary efforts 1. Biological --> Neurology, genetics, biology 2. Individual --> Differences, perception and behaviour, personality 3. Social --> Interpersonal behaviour, relationships 4. Cultural --> Norms, values, symbols Foundations for psychology -Aristotle, Plato, Hippocrates --> Role of the brain -Confucius --> Human development -Al-Kindi --> Sorrow and grief --> Cognitive therapy -At-Tabari --> Child psychology -John Stuart Mill --> Psychology to become a science -James Mark Baldwin --> First psychological lab at UofT Experimental Psychology Begins with Structuralism -Wilhelm Wundt --> First psychology lab in germany -Developed method of introspection -Edward Titchener --> Structuralism -Understanding the basic elements of consciousness = understanding the mind -Used introspection -Introspection abandoned as it is subjective and not scientifically reliable Functionalis
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