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Chapter 9

chapter 9 textbook note

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 9 Motivation - motivation factors that energize, direct, or sustain behaviour - it is concerned with how behaviour is initiated, directed, and sustained How does motivation activate, direct, and sustain behaviour? - most general theories of motivation emphasize four essential qualities of motivational states - (1) motivational states are energizing in that they activate or arouse behaviours - (2) are directive in that they guide behaviours toward satisfying specific goals or needs - (3) help people to persist in their behaviour until goals are achieved or needs are satisfied - (4) motives differ in strength, depending on both internal and external factors Needs, drives, and arousal motivate behaviour - need state of biological or social deficiencies within the body - satisfying our basic needs is not enough to live a fully satisfying life - lead to goal directed behaviours - failure to satisfy the need leads to psychosocial or physical impairment - need hierarchy Maslows arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs are lowest and personal growth need are highest in terms of ultimate priority - satisfaction of lower need sin hierarchy allowed humans to function at higher level - people must have their biological needs met and in order to experience personal growth - this is an example of humanistic psychology, in which people are viewed as striving toward personal fulfillment - humanists focus on the person in motivation - humans beings are unique among animals because we continually try to improve ourselves - self actualization a state that is achieved when ones personal dreams and aspirations have been attained - hierarchy is lacking in empirical support - independent of whether one needs to be self actualized in order to be happy, the ranking of needs is not so simple as Maslow suggests - hierarchy is more useful at the descriptive level than at the empirical level - make the important point that some needs are more compelling than others and are therefore stronger motivators - greater the need, greater the motivation to satisfy it - drives o drives psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs o needs create arousal, which motivates behaviours that will satisfy these needs o arousal term to describe psychological activation, such a increased brain activity, autonomic responses, sweating, or muscle tension o for biological states, basic drives help animals maintain a steady state, or equilibrium o homeostasis the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium o negative feedback models are useful for describing a number of basic biological processes o Hull proposed that when an animal is deprived of some need, a specific drive increases in proportion to the amount of deprivation o Drive state creates arousal, which activates behaviours until performing one of them reduces the drive o Initial behaviours in which the animal engages are arbitrary, but any behaviour that satisfies a need is reinforced and therefore is more likely to occur o If a behaviour consistently reduces a drive, it becomes a habit, the likelihood that a behaviour will occur is due both to drive and habit o Hulls drive theory could not explain why people choose to engage in behaviours that do not appear to satisfy biological needs o Incentives external stimuli that motivate behaviors (as opposed to internal drives) o What w value is determined to a large extent y the culture in which we live - Arousal and performance o Yerkes-Dodson law a psychological principle that dictates that behavioural efficiency increases with arousal up to an optimum point, after which It decreases with increasing arousal o We prefer to be somewhat aroused, which contradicts the idea that motivation always function to reduce levels of tension and arousal o Arousal theories help to explain why people choose different activities we choose them because they arouse us and absorb our attention o An optimal amount of arousal is also desirable on its own Pleasure can motivate adaptive behaviours - motivation can be viewed as a capability that initiates, directs, and sustains behaviours that promote survival and reproduction - motivational states therefore arouse behaviours that solve adaptive problems - engaging in these behaviors, especially when we are in a state of deprivation, often brings great pleasure - Freud drives are satisfied according to the pleasure principle, which tells organisms to seek pleasure and avoid pain - Idea is central to many theories of motivation - Hedonism, as a motivational principle, refers to the humane experience of pleasantness and unpleasantness - One limit of biological drive theories is that animals engage in behaviors that do not necessarily satisfy biological needs - From evolutionary perspective, behaviour associated with pleasure are often those that promote the animals survival and reproduction, whereas behaviours associated with pain interfere with survival and reproduction - Evolution did not anticipate that humans would one day create drugs that could activate natural reward systems Some behaviour are motivated for their own sake - extrinsic motivation motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed - intrinsic motivation motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for an apparent biological goal or purpose - are performed for their own sake - curiosity and play o one of the hallmarks of childhood is curiosity, a mental state that leads to intrinsically motivated behaviour o playful exploration is characteristic of all mammals and especially primates - creativity and problem solving o creativity the capacity to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, or entertaining ourselves and others o involves constructing novel images, synthesizing two or more disparate ideas or concepts, and applying existing knowledge to solving new problems o human mind also tires to consolidate info into coherent stories o people are motivated to make sense of the world o many creative pursuits do not themselves represent adaptive solutions, but they are modern uses of mechanisms that did evolve for such purposes - rewarding intrinsic motives o one of the basic principles or learning theory is that rewarded behaviours increase in frequency o extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation and decrease the likelihood that people will perform the rewarded behaviour - control theory and self perception o feelings of personal control and competence make people feel good about themselves and inspire them to do their most creative work o doing something to gain external rewards does not satisfy our need for autonomy o it undermines our feeling that we are choosing to do something for ourselves o self perception theory people are seldom aware of their specific motives and draw inferences about their motivation on the basis of what seems to make the most sense o rewarding people for engaging in an intrinsic activity gives them an alternative explanation for why they are engaging in it o it is not because the behaviour is fun, it is because of the reward o therefore, in the absence of the reward, they have no reason to engage in the behaviour o if the extrinsic reward provides info about how much personal control people have over learning, it will not undermine intrinsic motivation o extrinsic rewards undermine only behaviour that is intrinsically rewarding o extrinsic rewards can be used to make an otherwise boring task seem worth pursuing Why are human beings social? - people feel anxious when socially isolated - human nature requires us to have frequent and close contact with others Humans have a fundamental need to belong- need to belong theory the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes - those who lived with others were more likely to survive and pass along their genes - children who stayed with adults and who resisted being left alone were more likely to survive until their reproductive years because the group would protect and nurture them - the need to belong theory explains the ease and frequency with which many people form social bonds - note belonging to a group increases a persons risk for a number of adverse consequences, such as illnesses and premature death - the need to belong is a basic motive that drives behaviour and influences cognition and emotion - ill effects follow when it is not satisfied - supported by evidence that people feel anxious when excluded from their social groups - social exclusion theory anxiety warns individuals
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