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Chapter 2

PSYC18 Chapter 2 Textbook Notes.docx

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Heinz- Bernhard Kraatz

Chapter 2: Evolution of E’s My abbreviations • E = emotion, psy = psychology, R = relationship, dev = development, conc’n = concentration, mot’n = motivation, bc = because, ppl = people, exp = experience, +ve = positive, -ve = negative, w/ = with, w/o = without, btwn = between, recog = recognize, eval = evalutation, behv = behaviour, exp’t = experiment, expt’l = experimental, diff = different, ~ = the nearest heading, obs = observations, pt = participant,  = correlated with, lang = language, comm. = communication, evol = evolution, fxn = function, sol’n = solution, imp = important, percep = perception, cog = cognition, individ = individual, PNS = peripheral nervous system = ANS = Autonomic Nervous System, sym ANS = sympathetic ANS, parasym ANS = parasympathetic ANS, sci = science/scientific, ACC = Anterior Cingulate Cortex, PCC = Posterior Cingulate Cortex, org = organization, coord = coordination, mech = mechanism, rxn = reaction, physio = physiology/physiological, def’n = definition, bio = biology/biological, eval = evaluation, SP = selction pressure, reg = regulate/regulation, hypoth = hypothesis • Bolded terms are things I thought were important/def’ns/names of theorists/things that I thought I would have a harder time remembering Elements of the Evol Approach • In On the Origin of Species, Darwin described evol in terms of 3 processes: o Superabundance: organisms produce more offspring than necessary to merely reproduce themselves (i.e. more than one) o Variation: each offspring is somewhat diff (and these diffs are passed on hereditarily) o Selection : characteristics that promote adaption are selected bc they promote survival. And thus, these characteristics are more likely to be passed on. • Dennett: philosopher who thought Darwin’s ideas were the most important ever Selection Pressures = SP’s: • Features of enviro that determine who survives • Fight/flight, preference for sweets over bitter things, etc. = responses to ~ • 2 kinds of sexual ~’s: o 1)intersexual competition: one sex selects specific traits in the other sex (i.e. both men and woman like people who are kind and faithful) o 2)intrasexual competition: competition for mates within a sex (ex. Women want men who are strong, men want women who are beautiful) • Fitness: likelihood of surviving and reproducing successfully. Those who are preferred by others as sex (and even just social) partners have higher fitness Adaptation • ~ = genetically-based traits that allow the organism to cope well w/ SP’s, survive, reproduce • Ex. Preference for sweets is an adaption that allows us to have better nutrition, avoid toxins • Exposure to parasites in early dev  poor facial symmetry • Viewing beautiful faces  activity in medial orbitofrontal cortex (reward processing)  ratings of goodness. (faces we find beautiful may also seem inherently good to us • Slim waist in relation to hip size is found attractive in diverse racial groups (though there are cultural diffs even so) • Men’s attraction/arousal ratings  better w/ their physio signs of arousal than for women (i.e. women might have a physio response but not be mentally aroused. May be related to the pressure for women to be choosy about whom they mate with) • Human traits that serve no apparent evol’ary fxn are by-products • Exaptation = a previous trait (anatomical behv’l feature) that evol has kept and actually even added a new fxn too (i.e. facial expressions were developed from reflexes. So, for example, a dog flattening its ears when startled or approached by a potential enemy means the dog is trying to appease and look friendly. In humans, a very brief eyebrow raise is the analog if this, in many diff cultures, when people approach one another during flirting, greetings) Natural Design for Gene Replication • E’s = adaptations that help humans meet SP’s related to reproduction, survival, social coop • 100 trillion cells each contain chromosomes • 23 pairs of chromosomes inherited from parents which contain genes made of DNA • 25,000 genes which are responsible for creating proteins in cells • Proteins come to form many structures in dev (skin, muscles, etc.) • Genes also help build physio + anatomical systems (neural networks, branches of PNS) that are imp to E • We do not pass on our genes, genes pass themselves on and just “use” our bodies (bc genes can’t survive on their own and so they need a vessel). In this way, genes = potentially immortal. • Dawkin’s The Selfish Gene doesn’t mean humans themselves are selfish. Rather, social adaptations involve us being nice and even altruistic to each other to help genes go on. • Genes “program” us, mainly through our E’s • Indeed, some E’s are “wired in” so strongly that rxns are pure reflexes that we can’t defy (i.e. avoiding snakes) • But though these are wired, they are also shaped by social features o The reflex is the extreme and is preemptory and mandatory o But, attractions and urges are what we (and in a broader sense, culture) can modify • Disgust can signal us to avoid things that are gross but also things that are morally wrong o Anterior insula  disgust (both the perception of it and feeling it ourself) o Moral disgust is the same rxn as “gross disgust” Social Motivations • Humans are not just social, we are hypersocial (which is why we have dev’d societies, cultures) • The key to most E’s is that they involve others and enable us to live social lives • Aristotle said E’s exist to eval events in relation to our motivations. And most of our motivations are related to social things • Our genes have committed us to hypersociality but our language, consciousness, and complex humanity can allow us to express our genes in ways that we choose, if we learn now • 3 Primary social motivations and 1 antisocial motivation: all can be thought of as adaptations, selected for during evolution • social E’s manage social goals and move us towards the 3D space of the 3 motivations, which in turn influence our E’s again: st 1 Primary Social Motivation: Attachment • A cooperative motivation • Idea of this was Bowlby’s who joined his research on children being separated from their parents with Lorenz’s theory of imprinting: o Lorenz noted that hatchlings will learn to recog and follow the first, large-ish, moving creature that could potentially be their mom. Geese babies often mistook Lorenz for their mom and weren’t able to recog other geese. Imprinting is irreversible. • Bowlby’s theory of attachment is a human form of imprinting w/ goal of protecting the child • Mother = secure base which allows the baby to feel safe to explore enviro • This fxn of the mother continues into adolescence • The sort of trust that this sort of attachment brings includes confidence that one is and should continue to be safe • Ainsworth did naturalistic studies that showed that there are distinct behv patterns that young kids show when around their mothers but not when they’re w/ anyone else o i.e. differential crying, smiling, vocalization, following/clinging, crying when mom leaves o this serves the purpose of keeping mother nearby to protect the child • Bowlby thought that attachment in early years is as imp for E dev as nutrition is for physical dev • And also that attachment in infancy creates a template for all later intimate R’s • In fact, Ainsworth’s distinct behv patterns in infancy mirror those between lovers which supports this part of Bowlby’s theory • Bowlby also spoke of Affectional bonds = E bonds = how the most intense human E’s arise during the formation, maintenance, disruption, and renewal of these bonds • Darwin also suggested that the infant pattern of holding and being held mirrors adult caressing and is an elaboration of the universal, evolved patterns of early life 2 Primary Social Motivation: Assertion/Power • A motivation of competition and conflict st • 1 social motivation to emerge during evol • Status hierarchies are structures of competition that give preferential access to resources • Power, for most ppl, is carefully reg’d by fear of revenge, possibility of peril, and the law • Power also often comes w/ responsibilities (i.e. taking care of your children) o In this way, assertion can accompany the motivation of attachment • Shame = “the master E”, according to Scheff = the E of having one’s social status diminished 3rd Primary Social Motivation: Affiliation/Warmth/Affection • A cooperative motivation, about caring (caring = communal relating, not based on a system of exchange. i.e. if you love someone, you don’t only hug them bc they hugged you, you want to hug them regardless. You do things for them without expecting things back.) • Distinct but related to attachment. (attachment is more focused on protection) o affection  left frontal cortex o attachment (in the sense of distress from separation)  right frontal cortex • although attachment is common to all primates, only some species form affiliative bonds based on warmth • affiliation is based on positive reward and closely associated w/ touch • the evolved motivation of sexuality = affiliation + attachment • Lovejoy’s male provisioning hypoth = the joining of the affiliative system to the reproductive one can allow sex partners to coop to raise children o The critical evol chan
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