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Chapter 4

PSYC18 Chapter 4 Textbook Notes.docx
PSYC18 Chapter 4 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Heinz- Bernhard Kraatz

Chapter 4: Communication of Emotions My abbreviations • E = emotion, psy = psychology, R = relationship, dev = development, conc’n = concentration, mot’n = motivation, bc = because, ppl = people, exp = experience, +ve = positive, -ve = negative, w/ = with, w/o = without, recog = recognize, eval = evalutation, behv = behaviour, exp’t = experiment, expt’l = experimental, diff = different, ~ = the nearest heading, obs = observations, pt = participant,  = correlated with, lang = language, comm. = communication, evol = evolution, fxn = function, sol’n = solution, imp = important • Bolded terms are things I thought were important/def’ns/names of theorists/things that I thought I would have a harder time remembering Intro  • Givens + Perper documented patterns of nonverbal behv btwn ppl who flirt. Several phases: o Initial attention-getting phase: show off signs of their social status/attractiveness o Recognition phase: express interest in each other, extended eye contact, raised eyebrows, melodious laughter, subtle lip puckers o Exploration phase: touch each other a little, with provocative brushes, looking for subtle signs of delight/disgust o Keeping-time phase: mimic, mirror each other, to assess interest. The more they mirror, the more likely they are to take the next step in the romantic encounter • Comm. of E is a grammer of our social life • Comm. of E occurs in diff channels, many of which were recognized by Darwin 5 Kinds of Nonverbal Behvs • There are classes of nonverbal behv w/ often contrasting E’al connotations o i.e. “smile”, there are many diff kinds w/ many diff E’al meanings • thus, single words like “smile” fail to adequately describe the lang of nonverbal comm. • Ekman + Friesen organized into ~ • 1: Emblems: o Nonverbal gestures that directly translate to words (i.e. peace sign, middle finger) o Ove 800 emblems that vary across cultures, like words in diff langs • 2: Illustrators: o Gestures that accompany speech to make it vivid, visual, emphatic o Gestures slightly precede the corresponding words we say o They dramatize our speech. i.e. we raise our eyebrows when articulating our most imp point in a phrase. We nod our heads to strengthen a point. • 3: Regulators: o These coordinate conversation. i.e. head nods and eyebrow flashes and encouraging vocalizations of interest o We orient our body towards those we wish to continue speaking and away from those we do not. Regulators allow us to carry on collaborative convos w/o explicitly designating whose turn it is to speak. • 4: self-adaptos: o Nervous behvs that lack seeming intentions, as if simply just to release nervous energy o i.e. fidgeting, touching the face, biting their lip o when ppl show self-adaptors, others are more likely to believe that you are lying • 5: displays of emotion: o Facial expressions, vocal features, body lang, touch used to convey emotion Facial Expressions of E Markers of Emotional Expression • Most of these ~ have been established in the study of facial expressions, but are likely to apply to the voice and touch • 1)brief, last just a few seconds o Polite smiles are actually more brief than true enjoyment smiles (quarter of a second vs 10 seconds) • 2) involuntary muscle actions that people cannot deliberately produce and cannot suppress o The involuntary actions of true emotional expressions have a different neuroanatomical basis than voluntary facial actions • 3) human emotional expressions often have parallel displays in other species Studies of the Universality of Facial Expression • Darwin derived 3 principles to explain E expression: o 1) principle of serviceable habits: expressive behvs that helped individs respond adaptively in the evol past will reoccur in the future (i.e. forrowed brow protects eyes from blows and still occurs today when we are angry) o 2) principle of antithesis: opposing states will be associated with opposing expressions (i.e. pride vs shame, making yourself larger/dom, making yourself smaller/submissive) o 3) principle of nervous discharge: excess undirected energy is released in random expressions such as face touches, fidgeting, etc. • Darwin thought bc facial expressions derived from our evol heritage they must be universal • Tomkins, Ekman, Izard distilled Darwin’s observations into two hypotheses: o Encoding hypothesis: exp of diff E’s should be associated w/ the same distinct expression in every culture o Decoding hypoth: ppl of diff cultures should interpret the expressions in the same way • Tomkins proposed affect theory = emotions are hardwired, genetically transmitted to all humans. Based on specific physio mechs, affect derives from 9 basic E’s, which each have a distinct facial ecpression, which are universal • Tomkins mentored Ekman and Izard • Izard worked with children and dev’d a coding system based on which features of facial expressions enabled distinct basic E’s to be most clearly differentiated from each other • Ekman + Friesen dev’d the FACS = Facial Action Coding System = anatomically based coding sys for E’’s that identifies E’s based on muscle configurations o Ekman = recog’d by APA as one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century o Found the 6 universal E’s = anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise o Accuracy rates in identifying these 6 = 80-90%, across cultures, even ones that had not been exposed to Western culture like in Papua, New Guinea (the people of the Fore, who did not even speak pidgin, which is a combo of English + native language) o Even children have accuracy rates that high which shows that the ability to judge facial expressions occurs early in dev Critiques of the Studies of Universal Facial Expression • 1)Free response critique : they were asked to choose from a list of E’s, not to just say whatever they wanted. o Haidt + Keltner addressed this critique and found that diff cultures still use very similar concepts an there is no distinction btwn cross-culturally recongizable and nonrecognizable expressions. Results are better described as a gradient of recog. • 2)Ecological validity: whether more subtle expressions of emotion, perhaps more typical of everyday life, than exaggerated, static photos like the ones Ekman used, would be so reliably judged. They found that dynamic displays, i.e. videos, were actually recog’d even better. • 3) Barrett raised the critique of the extent to which ppl express prototypical basic expressions during episodes of emotion, citing a study of Roch-Levecq that found that congentially blind kids do not show the full, basic prototypical E’s that Ekman identified (only components) • 4) extending this argument, some facial displays can have diff meanings dependent on context (i.e. what you say, your body lang, other faces around you , culture, etc. can shape how E is perceived in a face.) o similar to how the word “bank” has diff meanings based on context o Barrett found that incorporating context during emotion percep appears to be routine, efficient, and to some degree automatic Discovering New Facial Displays of E • Ekman’s evidence for 4/6 E’s were quite strong, but less so for fear and surprise • More recently though, contempt has been added as another E that is likely universal • To prove universality, the encoding and decoding aspects must be shown in other cultures. But also, there is more proof if you can find that other species show aspects of that E. • Recently, evidence has been found for embarrassment, shame, pride, love, desire, sympathy Self-Conscious E’s: Embarrassment, Shame, Pride • Darwin studied the blush extensively • Embarrassment: • A common elicitor is loss ofpoise and composure in front of others • It is a highly coord’d, 2-3 second affective display where the eyes move downward, the head turns to the side (typically left and downward), smile for about 2 seconds, at the onset and offset of this smile there are lip puckers/presses (which are signs of inhibition), and while the head is down there are a few furitive glances upward. Often ppl also touch their face. • Total time= within 5 seconds. With a fluid, gradual onset and offset time, typical of involuntary emotional expression • Other cultures (i.e. India) can reliably differentiate this display from that of shame. But, only people in India recog the tongue bite as a display of embarrassment also. • Embarrassment displays in human also resemble appeasement displays in other species, which includes gaze aversion (to interrupt escalating aggression), head moving down, some primates cover their face. • Pride: • Tracy + Robins have studied this • it is an E associated w/ gains in status through socially valued actions • Tracy + Matsumoto found that blind athletes (who are better proof of evol claims bc they could not have been socialized to display the same E’s as us) also show the pride display of raised arms, expanded chest, etc. after victory. • and also shame at losing, with dropping their heads, slopped shoulders Displays of Positive E: Love, Desire, Sympathy • these help form critical attachments • desire promotes reproductive interactions, love promotes long-term relationships, and sympathy promotes care-giving behvs (to offspring but also vulnerable individs) • when romantic partners feel love, they show this brief display: smiling, mutual gaze, affiliative hand gestures, open postures, forward leans • sexual desire = lip licks, lip wipes, tongue protrusions • many other primates signal an interest in being close and affiliating • when people witness someone suffer and feel sympathy, this is correlated w/ oblique eyebrows and concerned gaze • sympathy display  increased helping behv, heart rate deceleration • as opposed to the painful wince, which is  w/ decreased helping behv and heart rate acceleration • Russell + Dols favor minimum universality in which they argue that some expressions have strong evidence of universality (i.e.the smile) but others are less strong, even if they have characteristic features of evolved displays. And so, the debate/controversy of universality still goes on. Vocal Comm of E • Capacity to use the voice in lang sets us apart from primates and may have contributed to the emergence of our enormous frontal lobes Examples of Vocal Comm: Teasing + Laughter • ~ are two commonplace social behvs whose meaning is found in subtle changes in vocalization • Teasing: playful provocation, commenting on some unusual and potentially undesirable act/attribute. i.e. nickname, tickle, sarcastic comment • Sarcasm = words say one thing, tone says another o Achieved w/ unusual tempo, clipped vowels, drawn-out syllables, nasal-rich tone • Laughter: likely preceded lang in its evol emergence (several mill years) o Contraction of the muscle surrounding the eyses and vocally distinct sounds of exhilaration/joy o Panksepp has shown that laughter has an animal analogue that typically occurs in play o There are many different types of laughs (angry, anxious, embarrassed, even laughs denoting sexual desire) o Some laughs even involve little emotion and just serve to fill convo gaps or signal that one is tracking what the other is saying and encourage them to say more o Voiced or songlike laughs which include vowel-like sounds and pitch modulation thanks to involvement of vocal folds are typically produced by women o Voiced laughs are found more attractive because they have direct effects upon the listener’s E’s and signal or remind the listener of positive experiences o Friends are likely to engage in antiphonal laughter in which their laughing overlaps o Laughter is a sign of friendship, play, intimacy The Comm of E’s w/ the Voice • Sherer argued that several E-related physio changes alter pitch, tempo, loudness • I.e. when anxious, muscles around the lungs are tense, thus restricting the air flow through the larynx. Our tense vocal chords will produce less variablitiy in pitch. Also, we have less saliva and the shape of our lips will tighten • Humans can accurately judge 5 diff emotions in the voice: anger, fear, happiness, sadness, tenderness (accuracy = 70%). And we are more accurate if they are of our own culture. • Vocal bursts: brief, non-word utterances that arise btwn speech incidents (i.e. shriek, growl, aww, mmm). We are quite adept at communicating through these and can express more than just the basic E’s (i.e. we can express boredom, awe, relief, pleasure, etc. not just happy, sad) o Some are universally identifiable, but a group called the Himba could not readily identify vocal bursts of pleasure, relief, admiration showing that some are more bc of culture o Disgust, surprise, anger, fear, sadness = most easily identified negative vocal bursts o Relief, amusement, awe, interest, enthusiasm, pleasure = same for +ve • Cheyney + Seyfarth: studied vervet monkeys and found that they have 3 distinct warning calls and evasive actions for 3 kinds of predators: o Eagle  hide in undergrowth
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