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Chapter 10

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 10: • Socialization plays less of a roll in monkey’s choice in toys , Bruce/Brenda Reimer circumsion went wrong, Aristotle: hot semen  men, cool semen  women Sex Chromosome Abnormalities: =Relatively mild compared to Down Syndrome (chromosome 21) • No record of an organism with just a Y chromosome • Turner Syndrome = XO = just an X: o Rare, affects girls o Down fertility (woman may be fertile if X chromosome is missing in some but not all cells), growth, hormone prod, ovary dev, height, spatial relationships, memory o Up diabetes osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, skin folds around neck • Klinefelter Syndrome = XXY = interference with X-inactivation: o Most common sex chromosome abnormality, affects boys o Down fertility, secondary male characteristics, social awkwardness, delayed/reduced verbal skills o Up lefty, female characteristics (breasts) • XYY: o Boys, SUBTLE issues o Taller, leaner o Acne, minor physical abnormalities of eye, elbow, chest, o Only sexual abnormality that leads to slightly lower IQ o More likely to be antisocial/go to prison, but that’s linked to lower IQ o Slightly more likely to produce sperm with sex chromosome abnormalities 3 Stages of Prenatal Dev • 1: Gonad Dev: o Occurs at 6 weeks after conception o Sex-determining region of the Y chromosome = SRY = a gene on the short arm of the Y chromosome that is expressed in males, Codes for the protein testis-determining factor • 2: Differentiation of Internal Organs: o 3 months  Male Wolffian System  seminal vesicles, vas deferens, prostate  Female Mullerian System  uterus, upper 2/3 of vagina, fallopian tubes o male testes secrete testosterone + anti-Mullerian hormone o Non fxn’l remnants of the Wolffian system remain throughout a woman’s life o *AIS = Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome =  Defective gene that produces abnormal androgen receptors  dev fails, even tho XY  Results in a shallow vagina and no ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus (infertile)  Externally look female  Seem to have an advantage in sports (1/500 women) • 3: Dev of External Genitalia: • 6 weeks, like gonads • 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone must be recognized by receptors for male genitalia dev o Formed from rxn between testosterone + 5-alpha-reductase(enzyme) • *CAH = Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia = o Recessive, adrenal glands release excess androgen o Males don’t seem too diff o Females are born w/ ambiguous genitalia: enlarged clitoris,  more tomboy-ish, more male-interest play, more likely to be bisexual/les • Prenatal exposure to androgens, barbiturates, DDT can masculinise the female brain o stronger otoacoustic emissions from inner ear (males have the strongest, then lesbian + bisexual women, then heterosexual women). And more sexual behv. Puberty: • Avg age of puberty dropped from 16  12 , Possibly bc obesity, exposure to more female hormones, phthalates (found in plastics, cosmetics),animal tissue contains estradiol • ~ onset: GnRH = Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is released by hypothal o Initiates release of FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone and LH = Luteinizing hormone by the anterior pituitary gland   testes produce testosterone: reg sperm + affect hairline, larynx enlarges   ovaries produce estradiol + changes in fat distrib o Both estradiol slows skeletal growth (early puberty  less growth) • *5-alpha-reductase deficiency: o Born with ambiguous genitalia, typically raised as girls o at puberty, 60% develop normal male genitalia = guevedoces, Dominican Republic Sex Difference in Nervous System • IN RATS: SDN-POA = sexually dimorphic nucleus of POA = in hypothal, larger in ma
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