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Chapter 14

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 14: • 1000 ppl a day are killed in local wars around world, In ancient societies, as many as ¼ of all men were killed in war, 50mill killed in WWII Evolution of Emotion • Possible adv of emotion is its contrib to general arousal needed to trigger a response • They also help us manage our approach/avoidance behvs • And they help us w/ nonverbal comm = imp source of social info for us and others Controlling Facial Exp • Usually, adults express and interpret emotions accurately • We might believe we can hide our feelings but, subtleties of emotional exp often give us away • We use our whole bodies but humans pay the most attention to the face, espec eyes • Infants prefer to look at faces than other stimuli • Facial movement is controlled by cranial nerves 5 and 7 o Trigeminal = deeper facial muscles attached to bones, chewing + speaking o Facial = superficial muscles attached to the skin, primarily for facial exp • Facial nerve has 5 major branches each serving a diff portion of face o Originates in the 2 facial nuclei, located on each side of the midline of pons  Do not comm. w/ each other, which is why facial exp are asymmetrical  Receive input from primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus) + subcortical o Upper third and lower two thirds are controlled differently  Upper = ipsi + contra facial nerve input  Lower = primarily controlled by by contra facial nerve input • Thus damage to motor cortex  lower paralyzed + sag, upper spared • 2 major paths control facial exp: o Input from motor cortex (voluntary ex. Smiling on command) o Subcortical (Spont expression ex. Smiling because you’re legit happy) o A condition called volitional (voluntary) facial paresis (paralysis) = damage to motor cortex making one unable to smile on command on the contra side. But invol is fine. o In contrast, Parkinson’s = subcortical problems so can’t smile spont but can by command = emotional facial paresis Bio Influences on Emotional Expression • Darwin assumed emotional exp had a strong bio basis o Major exp seem to be universal across cultures * 8 = angry, sad, happy, fearful, disgusted, surprised, contemptuous, embarrassed o Children’s capacities for emotional exp + recog dev according to a fairly reg timeline, even w/o much influence by experience (ex. Blind baby can still smile) o MZ twins show fear to strangers at around same age, compared to DZ Enviro Influences on Emotion • Basic emotions are innate but culture does affect it o Ex. Medical doctors go through training to withhold emotions like disgust • Presence of others often influences the intensity of our expressions o Make more intense rxns to odors in a group than alone o Japanese are more expressive to a sad movie alone than w/ peers  Americans did not vary significant;y • People generally have a harder time interpreting the emotions of the congenitally blind, w/ the exception of happiness bc that’s just the ultimate universal emotion Individ Diffs in Emotion • Individ’s are quite different from one another in overall lvls of emotional reactivity and emotional style (positive/negative emotional tendencies) • But our rxns to unpleasant odors are fairly consisten • Highly reactive people are at a greater risk for anxiety + mood disorders • Low-reactive have a greater tendency for antisocial behv • One source of ~ seems to be amygdale (which plays a crucial role in interpretation of emotions) • MDD  higher lvl of activity in amygdala  more negative modd Spotting a Liar • Deliberate lying is difficult bc it requires a great deal of short-term mem • One slip up is adding in um’s and uh’s as they are struggling to assemble the lie • They stiffen the head + upper body and the feet might swing in contrast • Nod their heads less frequently • Don’t gesticulate as much as when telling the truth • Inappropriate smiling + laughing can result from nervousness caused by lying • In US, lack of eye contact is interpreted as a sign of dishonestly but in many cultures it is considered and impolite expression of dominance • Polygraphs are wrong about roughly 1/4 - 1/3 of people (especially overestimating the innocent) o General lack of arousal in antisocial is to their benefit, makes them seem innocent o Innocent might be aroused out of fear of being accused, not bc lying o Bc of the unreliability, polygraph evidence is inadmissible in US court • fMRIs seem to be more accurate though • brain fingerprinting = EEGs used to determine recog of crime scene evidence o timing of response might indicate truthfulness (fast  truth, slow  lie) o Iowa Supreme Court admitted this as evidence James-Lange Theory • James + Lange independently dev’d similar theories • Emotions result from a sequence of events  physio  awareness of physio  emotion/feeling • See a bear  physio  brain interprets physio as fear • ~ assumes that specific physio linked to ID of certain feeling • “we feel fear because we tremble” • Dutton’s Bridge Study  we are not so very accurate in identifying our physical states, sort of disputes ~, bc misattribution of arousal • A variation of ~ suggests that deliberate facial exp’s can affect how we feel o Depression advice = sit up, look around + act cheerfully as if it already existed o Maori warriors use haka to prepare for battle while enacting grimaces, vocalizations, etc • Edgar Allan Poe wrote something related to mimicry + empathy • We are most accurate in assessing emotions of another person if our emotion matches theirs • Purging/catharsis/letting it all out doesn’t really help. Expressing more  enhances the feeling. • Anger management  deep breaths, cog restructuring (use logic), make an effort to empathize/see others’ point of view, if you’re at fault avoid making excuses, change your enviro/get out of a bad situation, find humour. It’s difficult to stay angry w/ someone who says “I’m very sorry, I made a mistake.” Letting it out not recommended. Cannon-Bard Theory • Cannon really criticised the J-L theory. Bard later modified Cannon’s theory. • Says that cog + physio occur simultaneously + independdly • See a bear  feel fear + physio at same time • CNS has the ability to produce an emotion directly w/o needing feedback from PNS Schachter-Singer Theory • Like J-L, assumes emotions result from a sequence of events • But unlike J-L, it does not require a specific physio for each emotion • Instead stimulus  arousal (same arousal can be interpreted in different ways)  and we make a conscious, cog appraisal of our circumstances feeling • Giving people epinephrine and then putting them with a happy/angry actor. Their feeling was found to depend on the situation, i.e. how they attributed the arousal. o Further, when told that they were being given epinephrine, the actor didn’t affect! • This theory better explains the Dutton bridge study • Weakness of theory = assuming that physio not uniquely associatied w/ specific emotions o Many emotions do seem to correlate w/ specific physio Contemporary Theories of Emotion • None of the above theories can definitively and fully explain emotion • ~ note that physio associated w/ emotions range from specific to ambiguous o Ex. Physio for disgust is more specific than that of pride • Emotional stimuli can also prod overlapping physio’s (ex. Anger vs fear) • Initial specificity of the physio might lead to diff paths  diff cog response • Highly specific might be J-L-esque, but others might need sig more cog processing (S-S) • Damasio studied people whose emotions are impacted by neuro damage o Stimulus processed by sensory cortex if immediately present or by hippo if rmrd o These areas then activate structures like brainstem, hypothal, amygdala o Which sends msgs to ANS  higher lvls of brain o Somatosensory cortex encodes the entire pattern of exp as a somatic marker o Ventromedial prefrontal then in turn forms associations btwn somatic markers and the situations that elicit them so that it’ll reoccur in future similar situations o Allows brain to mark situations as positive/negative o Frontal lobe damage  can’t tap into somatic markers for normal emotion response Bio Correlates of Emotion • ANS, amygdala, cingulated cortex, cerebral cortex ANS • Answers to hypothal, either directly or by way of nucleus of solitary tract (in medulla) which receives input from the hypothal • General diffs between positive and negative emotions are pretty clear, but it’s not very reliable to correlate ANS patterns to a specific emotion • Negative  stronger ANS response than positive emotions Amygdala • Kluver-Bucy (syndrome) removed the bilateral temporal lobes in monkeys and found them to be tamer (less intense emotions, oblivious to fear-producing stimuli), explored objects w/ their mouths, more frequent + inappropriate sexual behv, overly reactive to visual stimuli but fail to recog familiar objects. Occurred bc ~ damage mainly • ~ made up of 3 nuclei clusters which relate to emotion (identifying + expressing), reward, motivation, learning, mem, attn • Receives input from many areas of neocortex (espec sensory), cingulate cortex, hippo • Amygdala projects widely, including to F + T, olfactory bulb, BG, hypothal, nucleus accumbens • Bilateral damage to ~  reduced emotionality, particularly fear, anxiety, aggression • S.M.= a patient whose amygdalas were destroyed bc Urbach-Wiethe Disease could no longer describe/recog a fearful/angry face o she failed to look at the eye region of the faces • autistic trouble identifying emotions too, fail to make eye contact, + often have ~ abnormalities. • Amygdala related to exploration of social enviro + interpreting the results • LeDoux’ fear circuit = fear conditioning = can be learned in just one trial = path conn’ing amygdala-thalamus which receives input from sensory and provides a rapid, crude eval of emotional sig of a stimulus o This probably accounts for our
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