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Chapter 12

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 12: • “S” had an extraordinary memory but it prevented him from truly thinking Learning • Behv of organisms can be separated into 3 major categories: o Reflexes = produced by prewired neural conn’s/reflex arcs. Rapid, reliable, inflexible. o Instincts = automatic, more complex. Mostly mating/parenting, Somewhat modified by exp o Learned behvs = Excludes changes from maturation/growth. Excludes brief/unstable changes, allows adapting Types of Learnings • Associative learning = conn between two features of its enviro. Ex. Classical + Operant conditioning • Nonassociative learning = includes process of habituation + sensitation. Involves changes in magnitude of response to stimuli rather than formation of conn’s o Habituation: organism reduces its response to unchanging, harmless stimuli o Sensitization: repeated exposure to a strong stimulus increases response to other enviro stimuli. Ex. A blackout makes you more sensitive to stimuli. Classical Condtioning: • Often sea slug, Aplysia Californica which has neural nets instead of brain o gill on dorsal surface covered by mantle shelf. At one end of which is a siphon (tube to release waste + seawater) and touching the siphon produces a gill- withdrawal reflex o Siphon is served by 24 touch receptors whose cell bodies located in abdominal ganglion o Repeated touching reduced the size of EPSPs in both inter and motor neurons o it depletes the amount of available neurotrans in pre producing short-term habituation o Long-term habituation can last 3 weeks, postsynaptic NMDA glutamate receptor. • Habituation occurs in a single pathway connecting sensory (from siphon)  motor (gill) • Sensitization, however, a stimulus gains the ability to influence more than one pathway o It stims sensoryinter sensory axo-axonic synapses  release serotonin o metabotropic process closes K channels and APs last longer bc repolarization is delayed o Longer APs greater influx of Ca into the sensory neuron  more neurotrans release stronger gill-withdrawal reflex • Changes at synaptic lvl account for short-term changes but structural neuron mods long-term changes (ex. Changes in # of presynaptic terminals) o Sensitization  more terminals, dendrites also modified to accommodate, increase of another type of glutamate receptor = AMPA receptor o Habituation  less terminals = less sensitive o The changes also involve actin = a protein that makes up microfilaments of cytoskeleton o Coordination of pre and post changes occur through retrograde signals Types of Memory • No absolute boundary between learning + memory • Info-processing/ Atkinson-Shiffrin Model assume that info flows through a series of stages on its way to permanent storage (sensory  short-term/working = 5-9 items, 15-18 seconds  long-term • Long-term is divided into 3 categories: o Semantic = facts + lang o Episodic = personal exp • Together, semantic + episodic = declarative = recalled consciously/explicitly. Includes trace conditioning (a type of classical conditioning that shares similarities with declarative mem) o Procedural = Includes classical + operant conditioning Brain Mechs in Mem • Lashley = one of first to look for engram o Guessed association cortex and did cortical lesions on rats o Location of his lesions actually didn’t seem to matter, only the size o Mistakenly concluded = equipotentiality • Penfield = gave further evidence of memories being localized in brain w/ cortical mapping o Stim of temporal lobe in seizure patients resulted in experiential response of patient • There’s a tri-synaptic pathway: o from the cortex via preforant pathway and synapses on the dentate gyrus o From dentate via mossy fibre pathways, synapsing on CA3 o Frm CA3 via schaffer collaterals, synapsing on CA1 Temporal Lobe and Mem • H.M. had hippos, amygdala, part of association cortex of medial temporal +surrounding areas of cortex = parahippocampal + rhinal cortex removed bilaterally o Could do well w/ implicit mem ex. Mirror-drawing task o Since he retained, medial temporal is probably not where actual memories reside • DNMS = delayed nonmatching to sample task = present a monkey w/ temporal lobe lesions an object that covers a food reward and then after a delay, present two objects o Performed poorly compared to control monkey bc difficulty forming new memories • LTP = model for learning and mem, is in the hippo and is associated w/ forming spatial
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