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PSY100H1 (1,821)


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Ashley Waggoner Denton

CH7 – PERCEPTION AND LEARNING Attention Determines What is Remembered  Attention – direct self to some info at cost of less attention to other info o Cocktail Party Phenomenon – focus single conversation midst many o Attention focus easily distract-able  Partly b/c loudness & proximity also selective attention  Epically if using same mechanism, ex. 2 conversations o Shadowing – listen to 2 conversation, only focus one & repeat it simultaneously vs. driving and listening to music  Acknowledges other conversation, but no content knowledge o Multi-tasking – possible, hinders overall performance  Unattended conversation may get through attention filter  Visual Attention Is Selective and Serial  Personally relevant information (name), loudness o PARALLEL PROCESSING – process information from diff. visual  Selective Attention Operate at Multiple Stages of Processing features at same time by focusing on targets, ignoring distractors o Filter Theory – ppl filter incoming info, let in only most important  primitive feature w/i environment automatically identified  b/c limited capacity for sensory info. disregards irrelevant info.  Explains selective nature of attention  color, motion, orientation, shape, size  Visual Search Tasks (Feature Search Tasks) – look for target,  Some stimuli demand attentions, close attention to all other differ w/ distractors on one feature  Ex. faces, threatening ones prioritized over others  ex. a few red A’s (target) w/ many black A’s (distractors)  Unattended info still process to some extent unconsciously  Can’t repeat information, content still processed  most effective w/ primitive features o Conjunction Tasks – stimulus looking for has 2 simple features o CHANGE BLINDNESS – the common failure to notice large changes  Serial Processing – look at stimuli one at a time in environments  compare between multiple features  b/c can only attend to limit info and large discrepancies btwn  Effortful – takes longer, requires more attention what people believe they saw & actually saw  ex. find red X among different colored X’s and Y’s  ex. swap a person in middle of conversation, 50% don’t notice  Auditory Attention Allows Selective Listening  as long as replacement same race and sex Basic Stages of Memory  MEMORY – the nervous system’s capacity to acquire and retain usable  Central Executive – deal w/ other 3 parts, control system skills and knowledge  Encodes info from sensory system, filters important info o Info. gathered w/ sense transduced into neural impulses for long-term storage o Certain memory = intricate pattern of neural activity in brain  Retrieve important long-term memory as needed  Information Processing Model – emulates computer processes  Other 3 temporarily holds information o ENCODING – the processing of information so that it can be stored  Phonological Loop – encodes auditory information  Info changed into neural code  Ex. inner voice when reading o STORAGE – the retention of encoded representations over time that  Evidence: errors remembering consonants sounds alike, corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the not looks alike (D & T, not D & Q) event  Visuospatial Sketchpad – process visual info, object’s features, o RETRIEVAL – The act of recalling or remembering stored info to use it locations, etc.  MODAL MEMROY MODEL – the three-stage memory system that involves  Episodic Buffer – integrated information about oneself sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.  Draws from long-term episodic memory o SENSORY MEMORY – memory for sensory information that is stored briefly (seconds) close to its original sensory form  Allows us view in continuous stream, not discrete sensations  Connect one sensation (ex. visual image) to the next  When sensory info leaves vanishing trace on nervous system  Ex. brief image of a quick glance  Sperling’s sensory memory experiment: 3 rows of letters shown for 1/12 second to participants  Ask recall all: can only recall 3 – 4 b/c by forgotten rest  Ask recall specific row after display: recalled almost all  Longer delay = worse performance recalling specific row  Sperling: sensory memory persist 1/3 of second, then fades o SHORT-TERM MEMORY (STM) – a limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for brief period.  Longer than sensory memory, includes working memory  WORKING MEMORY (WM) – an active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use  Aka. Immediate memory; lasts 20 – 30 seconds, then disappears unless actively prevented w/ thinking/rehearsing on it  Updating working memory  retrieval, transformation, substitution o LONG-TERM MEMORY (LTM) – the relatively permanent storage of  Active processing unit, deal w/ many types of information information.  Memory Span – working memory limit, 7 items ±2, possibly less  Compared w/ WM = more capacity, longer duration  CHUNKING – Organizing information into meaningful  LTM and WM separate systems, but highly units to make it easier to remember. interdependent –ex. chucking info. in WM, need form  Baddely’s Working Memory System, 4 parts: meaningful connection w/ info in LTM  SERIAL POSITION EFFECT – the ability to recall items from a list  Distributed Practice – material studies in multiple depends on order of presentation, middle items least sessions over time better remembered vs. brief period remembered (Massed Practice)  Primary Effect – early items in list better recalled, in LTM  Simple repeating ineffective for making info memorable – b/c first items rehearsed the most ex. poor memory for highly familiar objects b/c irrelevant  Recency Effect – late items in the list better recalled, in  Evolutionary theory: only info helps us adapt to WM environment typically transformed into LTM, decided in  Encoding into long-term memory, filtering system advance which info useful for survival/reproduction  Overlearning – keep rehearing materials, over long periods Long Term Memory Systems  Old View vs. New View o False Frame effect – previous encounter w/ names primed o Old view: memories differed in strength and accessibility participants to think some repeated names are famous  All memories considered same type o Repetition Priming – improvement in identifying/processing o New view: memory = process involves several systems previously experienced stimulus  Encode/store different info types differently  Ex. completing words, reflect previously encountered words  Ex. remember bike = procedural memory from LTM  Even if can’t recall previously encountered words  EXPLICIT MEMORY – the processes involved when people remember o PROCEDURAL MEMORY – a type of implicit memory that involves specific information motor skills and behavioral habits o DECLARATIVE MEMROY – the cognitive information retrieved from  Has automatic unconscious aspect, disrupted when consciously explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared though on  Incl. words, concepts, visual images, etc.  PROSPECTIVE MEMORY – remembering to do something at some time in o EPISODIC MEMORY – memory for one’s personal past experiences the future  incl. info of time/place the experience occurred o Reduces working memory space or number of things attended to o SEMANTIC MEMORY – memory for knowledge about the world o Involve automatic & controlled processes  Independent of personal experience o Particular environments has retrieval cues, helps remembers  IMPLICIT MEMORY – the system underlying unconscious memories  Otherwise req. ongoing remembering o Classical conditions – certain stimuli associated w/ another Long-Term Information Organization  Long-Term Storage  RETRIEVAL CUE – anything that helps a p
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