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Ashley Waggoner Denton

CH10 – HEALTH AND WELL-BEING Psychosocial Factors Affect Health  HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY – Field of psychological science concerned w/ o Biological Characteristics – genetic predisposition, exposure to events that affect physical well-being germs, brain and other nervous system developments o believe behaviors & attitudes = critical keeping ppl healthy o Behavioral Factors – thoughts/actions, lifestyle, stress, health beliefs  traditional medical model only emphasize disease states vs. o Social Conditions – environments, cultural influences, family treatments relationships, social support o Circular Nature: ex. obesity o WELL-BEING – A positive state that includes thriving for optimal health and life satisfaction  genially predispose to be anxious, cope w/ comfort foods   health-enhancing behaviors help maintain wellness  achieve excessive eating, overweight, find exercise tedious, difficult optimal health  Leading causes of death are behavioral o study interrelationship btwn thoughts (health related cognition), o Physical heath, especially heart disease actions, physical & mental health  behavioral contributors: obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, high  i.e. behavior, social systems effect on health fat diets, personality traits  i.e. health behaviors/outcomes effect on behaviors, cognition, o Accidents, many avoidable, reduce probability emotions  incl. safe driving practices, safe sexual behavior  BIO-PSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL – A model of health that integrates the  teenagers & young adults, ~half deaths b/c accidents, effects of biological, behavioral, and social factors on health and illness;  PLACEBO EFFECT – A drug or treatment, unrelated to the particular views health and illnesses as products of a combination of these factors problem of the person who receives it, may make the recipient feel better because the person believes the drug or treatment is effective. o Belief it will work, recipient can’t know it’s inert o Placebo’s effect mostly b/c decreased anxiety, all in the head  can’t separate mind’s effects w/ body’s effect, seamlessly same o ex. pains felt depends on context, expectations, thoughts about pain  when ppl calmer, same pain less intense o placebo effect supports bio-psychosocial model Cope with Stress  STRESS – A pattern of behavioral psychological and physiological o Excessive stress disrupt working memory, especially when demands responses to events that match or exceed an organism’s abilities to on WM high respond.  chronic stress associated w/ memory impairments b/c cortisol o STRESSOR – An environmental event or stimulus that threatens an damages neurons in brain organism.  esp. hippocampus = primary memory structure o COOPING RESPONSE – Any response an organism makes to avoid,  stress also inhibit w/ abilities to recall prev. learned info escape from, or minimize an aversive stimulus. o generally, positive/negative life changes = stressful, greater number = greater stress  more likely physiological state impact  Eustress – stress of positive events  ex. attending desired university, work  Distress – stress of negative events  ex. trapped in traffic, death of loved ones o Major life stressors – changes/disrupts that strain central areas of ppl’s lives  can be positive/negative and by choice –ex. having children  can be unpredictable, uncontrollable catastrophic events o Daily Hassles – small, day-to-day irritations, combined effects comparable w/ major life stressors  threatens coping responses b/c slowly wears down person’s resources  Stress has physiological components o HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL (HPA) AXIS – the biological system responsible for stress response  stress begin in brain w/ perception of stressful events  hypothalamus send chemical message to  reach pituitary gland, then secrete hormones to bloodstream  reach adrenal gland, secrete cortisol  Cortisol – hormone, responsible for feeling felt w/ stress  HPA axis efficient system for ancestors b/c increased energy  for survival, fight or flight  Sex differences in response to stressors o IMMUNE SYSTEM – The body’s mechanism for dealing with invading o FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT RESPONSE – The physiological preparedness of micro-organisms, such as allergens, bacteria, and viruses. animals to deal with danger  stress alters immune system functions, not natural process  allows organism w/i seconds/minutes respond to stressor  short term = boost, long term = weaken  direct all energy to deal w/ threat at end  ex. children of low socio-economic status households,  physical reactions: heart rate increase, blood supply distribute lifelong consequences from skin/viscera (digestive organs) to muscles/brain,  Psychoneuroimmunology – studies body’s immune system’s respiration deepen, pupils dilate, gastric secretion inhibited, response to psychological variables glucose release from liver increase  LYMPHOCYTES – Specialized white blood cells known as B cells,  less critical automatic activities postponed (food T cells, and natural killer cells that make up the immune system digestion)  levels decreases after prolonged stress  believed a typical male response to threat o Heart Disease  women < 1/5 participants in these studies, excluded b/c  coronary heart disease #1 death cause for adults in dev. world hormonal & menstrual patterns, skew results  30 million ppl heart attacks worldwide, 12mill die o TEND-AND-BEFRIEND RESPONSE – Females’ tendency to protect and  age  arteries from heart narrows b/c fatty deposit built care for their offspring and form social alliances rather than flee or up (plaque)  more difficult heart pump blood fight in response to threat  plaque break off, clots form around it, interrupt blood  evolutionary view: b/c females responsible for offspring care flow  causes heart attacks, if in brain = stroke  threat appears, females quiet offspring, hide, avoid  stress & negative emotions increase coronary heart problem risk danger  1. coping methods unhealthy (overeating, smoking)  also group = additional protection and support  2. stress cause ware/tear on heart, more likely fail; b/c  OXYTOCIN – A hormone that is important for mothers in chronic stress  overstimulate sympathetic nervous bonding to newborns. system, higher blood pressure, constrict blood vessel,  produce in hypothalamus, release into bloodstream elevate cortisol levels, increase fatty acids in though pituitary gland
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