Textbook Notes (367,753)
Canada (161,369)
Psychology (2,971)
PSY100H1 (1,821)


4 Pages
Unlock Document

Ashley Waggoner Denton

CH6 – PERCEPTION AND LEARNING Development of behavioral study of learning  LEARNING – an enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience o John B. Watson: observable behavior only valid psychological o Critical for animals’ b/c survithl (food, shelter, etc.) indicator, anti-Freud  founded behaviorism  Rise of Learning theory in early 20 century b/c dissatisfaction w/  Tabula rasa (Locke) – blank slate, all knowledge acquired, not introspection innate o Behaviorism dominant psychological paradigm till 60s Classical Conditioning  CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (Pavlovian conditioning) – A type of learned o CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) – A stimulus that elicits a response response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive only after learning has taken place response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that  Ex. Metronome = CS b/c elicits salivation after training response  Neutral stimulus  CS after Conditioning trials o CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR) – A response to a conditioned stimulus that has been learned  Ex. Salivation = CR b/c acquired/learned response after training  Usually weaker than Unconditioned Response  Key Classical Condition Concepts o Pavlov influenced by Darwinism, believed conditioning basis for animals adapt to environments  Learning predicts object’s properties = new adaptive behaviors o ACQUISITION – The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli  Contiguity – US and CS occurs together in time, critical for acquisition of learned associations  Strongest conditioning when brief delay btwn CS and US  b/c It’s assumed CS predicts US o EXTINCTION – A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the CS is repeated without the US  CR extinguished b/c CS no longer predicts US  Extinction = form of learning, overwrites previous association  Learned original association no longer true o SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY – A process in which a previously extinguished response re-emerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus  Single pairing CS and US re-establishes CR o STIMULUS GENERALIZATION – Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response  Adaptive feature b/c naturally CS experience rarely identical o STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION – A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus. o Second-Order Conditioning – conditioned stimulus directly associated not with an unconditioned stimulus  Ex. 2 nd neutral stimulus present w/ CS w/o US, still induces CR  Pavlov’s Experiments: experimented w/ food stimulus o Salivary reflex – automatic, unlearned response, occurs when food stimulus present to hungry animal  Realized animal salivated when experimenter entered room  Response not innate, must be acquire through experience o Neutral Stimulus – unrelated to reflex, ex. metronome o Conditioning Trail – present neutral stimulus w/ stimulus that reliably produce reflex  presentation repeated number of times o Critical Trails – only neutral stimulus remains, reflex measured  Conclude neutral stimulus alone elicits reflexive response b/c associated w/ stimulus that reliably produce reflex o UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UR) – A response that does not have to be learned, w/o training, such as a reflex  ex. Salivation = UR b/c elicited by food  Application of Classical Conditioning o UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (US) – A stimulus that elicits a o PHOBIA – An acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat response, such as a reflex without any prior learning of an object or a situation.  ex. Food = US b/c elicits salivation  Fear conditioning – Animals classically condition fear neutral  Actually: some pairing more likely associated than other objects  Conditioned food aversion – conditioned avoid particular food  ex. Flashing lights & pain, conditioned fear flashing lights followed w/ illness, esp. unusual foods  Amygdala most important brain structure for fear conditioning  Also avoid foods w/ similar smell/taste  Watson proposed phobias explained by simple learning  Can’t reproduce w/ light/sound stimuli principles (Classical Conditioning)  Biological preparedness – animals genetically programmed fear  Conditioned little Albert fear rats, original neutral specific objects  US = smashing sound; UR fear  Ex. easier condition ppl of negative traits w/ diff race  Neutral stimulus  CS = rat; CR = fear of rats o Sex Differences in Learning  Counterconditioning – associate little CR (fear) w/ pleasant  Ex. learning navigation, females more likely from map, rely on stimulus, help overcome the fear landmarks; males track compass direction  Systematic desensitization (Wolpe) – formal treatment based  Ex. females “LRLR..”; male “general direction” on counterconditioning  Performance practically identical btwn sex  patients taught relax muscles & imagine feared o Cognitive Perspective – consider metal processes (prediction, object/situation expectancy) on learning  Rescorla: neutral stimulus before US more easily condition than  CS  CR1 (fear) can be broken w/ CS  CR2 (relaxation) o Addictions – ex. coffee smell & sight of heroin needles induce effects after  Withdrawal – not satisfying cravings, un pleasant states of  Even if both continuous presentations b/c prediction tension & anxiety  Optimal delay btwn CS & US for learning varies  Treatment req. expose addicts to drug cues, extinguish  RESCORLA-WAGNER MODEL – A cognitive model of classical responses conditioning  Higher tolerances when drug taken some location b/c body  CS-US association strength determined by the extent to learned expect drug which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected  Ex. higher alcohol tolerance when feels familiar  Novel stimuli more easily associated w/ US than familiar  Classical Conditioning Involves more than events occurring at the same  Blocking effect – a learned CS prevent new CS time  Stimulus associated w/ CS can act as Occasion setter (trigger) o Evolutionary preparedness: for CS  Pavlov: any object/phenomenon converted to CS during conditioning trails Operant Conditioning  OPERANT CONDITIONING (instrumental conditioning) – A learning  Reinforcement Increases Behavior process in which the consequence of an action determine the likelihood o Skinner reject states of satisfaction, not observable empirically that it will be performed in the future. o REINFORCER – A stimulus that follows a response and increases the o Many actions instrumental – done for a purpose (rewards) likelihood that the response will be repeated. o Operant – animals operate on environment to produce effects  Skinner: behavior (studying, eating) occurs b/c reinforced o Thorndike – place cats in puzzle boxes, study outcomes  Provided after subject display appropriate response  Cats first accidently open box; subsequent trails faster  o Skinner box – assess operant conditioning, simple chamber/cages learned response to environment rewards animals inside for certain actions  LAW OF EFFECT – Thorndike’ general theory of learning: any  Ex. levers, 1 for food another for water behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” will more o SHAPING – A process of operant conditioning; it involves reinforcing likely occur again, and any behavior that leads to an “annoying behavior that are increasingly similar to the desire behavior state of affairs” will less likely recur  b/c outside control environments (Skinner box) hard to condition subject display appropriate response  reinforcing successive approximations eventually produce desired behavior  b/c tech discriminate which behavior being reinforced  used raise children &
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.