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Ashley Waggoner Denton

CH9 – MOTIVATION AND EMOTION How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behavior  MOTIVATION – Factors that energize, direct, or sustain behavior, 4 essential qualities of motivational states are: o Energizing – activate/arouse behaviors o Directive – guide behaviors to satisfying specific goals/needs o Persist – continue behavior till goal achieved o Strength – depending on internal/external factors motives differ in strength  Multiple factors motivate behavior o NEED – State of biological or social deficiency, lead to goal-directed behaviors  NEED HIERARCHY – Maslow’s arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs must be met before people can satisfy higher needs, lacked empirical support  personal growth at pinnacle, survival at basis b/c req. fulfill biological needs, feel safe, secure, love, etc. first  Maslow’s Hierarchy example of Humanistic Psychology  SELF-ACTUALIZATION – A state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have been o Pleasure principle – Freud: ppl seek pleasure & avoid pain, fundamental to how drives are satisfied attained  Hedonism – human’s desire for pleasure  pleasure explains unnecessary behaviors –ex. eating excess sweets b/c sweetness = safe to eat  desirable behaviors associated w/ survival and reproduction, painful behaviors interfere w/ survival and reproduction  Self-motivated behaviors o EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION – Motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is direct –ex. work o INTRINSIC MOTIVATION – Motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose –ex. music listening  Creativity – tendency to generate ideas, alternatives useful in solving problems, communicating, entertaining  useful for solving adaptive problems  passionate activities shape personal identity o extrinsic rewards hinder intrinsic motivations  Self-determination theory – ppl motivated to satisfy competence, relatedness to others, autonomy (personal control) needs  extrinsic reward undermine feeling of choice  autonomy & competence make people feel good about o DRIVE – Psychological state, motivates organism to satisfy its needs themselves, inspires creativity  HOMEOSTASIS – body functions’ tendency to keep equilibrium  basic drivers help maintain equilibrium (set-point) w/  Self-perception theory – ppl seldom aware their specific biological states (hunger/thirst) motives, draw inferences of own motivations from what makes most sense  drive increases proportionally to a deprived need  w/o obvious external explanation, conclude motivation  Habits – dev. when behaviors consistently reduces a drive –ex. watch to relief stress, develop TV habit for self-gratification  AROUSAL – Generic term describe physiological activation, incl.  rewards = alt explanation for engaging, replace goal of pure pleasure, not as motivated increased brain activity, autonomic responses, sweating, or  People set goals to achieve muscle tension  drive states create arousal, encourage remedy act o Goal – a desired outcome, usually associated w/ specific object, incl.  INCENTIVES – External stimuli (as opposed to internal drives) short-term (satisfying needs), long-term aspirations that motivate behaviors.  Psychological Needs – need for power, autonomy, achievement, play, amongst 27 basic needs  external goals/objects, might counter drives (internal)  Self-regulation of behavior – a process, ppl alter their behavior  ex. work harder for unknown financial reward o Arousal and Performance to attain personal goals  Yerkes-Dodson Law – quality of performance increases with  Qualities of a good goal  Challenging – inspire effort, persistence, concentration arousal to an optimal point, then decreases  Not overly difficult – not undermine motivation  ex. best performance when moderate anxiety  Optimal Level of Arousal – little = bored, a lot = overwhelmed  Specific – has concrete steps to success o Self-efficacy – expectancy that efforts will lead to success  help mobilize your energies  low efficacy = not motivated, high efficacy = set challenging, successful goals; inflated efficacy = set impossible goals o Achievement motivation – desire to do well relative to standards of  NEED TO BELONG THEORY – The need for interpersonal attachments is excellence; higher = perform better, set challenging attainable goals fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes in humans o Delayed gratification – process, transcending immediate o ex. children stayed w/ adults more likely survival until reproductive temptations, for long-term goal achievements years b/c production and nurture  better delayed gratification, predict of higher success in life o Making and keeping friends  best technique: turn hot cognitions into cold cognitions  societies differ in types of groups, but all have some forms of  others: ignoring, self-distracting group membership  Hot Cognitions – focus rewarding, pleasurable aspect of objects  not belonging to a group increases person’s risks  performed in amygdala, nucleus accumbens  lack social contact cause emptiness/desire  neg. conseq  Cold Cognitions – focus conceptual/symbolic meanings  humans have mechanisms detecting group status  preformed in prefrontal cortex  ppl feel anxious when facing exclusion from social group  shy/lonely ppl tend worry about social evaluation o increase anxiety, increase affiliation motivations w/ similar people  i.e. misery loves miserable company  Social Comparison Theory – ppl motivated to have accurate info about self and others, comparison w/ others test/validate personal beliefs and emotional responses What Determines How We Eat  Time and Taste o eating classically conditioned w/ regular meal times  anticipatory responses motivate eating behavior, prepare body for digestion  sight/smell of tasty food has same effect o Flavor, variety, larger portions encourage more consumption  Sensory-Specific Satiety – phenomenon, animals stop eating relatively quickly if just on type of food present  eat more w/ more variety b/c evolutionary advantageous, satisfy nutritional requirements  frontal lobe regions involved w/ accessing food’s reward value decreased activity when same food eaten repeatedly, increased activity when new food presented  Culture determines consumption o Neophobia – fear of novel things  learn new foods involve w/ small exposures till familiar w/ taste  infants/children learn/try foods by observing parents/siblings also  ex. ppl starved even when presented nutritious unfamiliar foods o Cuisine – local norms for food & preparation guidelines  cultural rules govern food appropriateness in diff. contexts  ex. Kosher Jews, Hindus  most food preferences idiosyncratic, not avoid harm o Internal sensations  reflect group preferences  Multiple neural processes control eating  Stomach contractions/distensions miner determinant of hunger and eating o Hypothalamus most influences eating, not alone  Bloodstream  hypothalamus integrates various inhibitory/excitatory feeding  Glucostatic Theory – bloodstream ministered for glucose message, organize behaviors involved in eating  damaged specific areas, changes eating behavior level b/c primary fuel for metabolism & neural activity  Lipostatic Theory – body fat has set-point, deviation  Hyperphagia – excessive eating behavior
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