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Ashley Waggoner Denton

CH13 – PERSONALITY How Have Psychologists Studies Personality  PERSONALITY – the characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and  LATENCY STAGE – libidinal urges suppressed, channeled into behaviors that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across work, friendships circumstances.  GENITAL STAGE – adolescents & adults; mature sexuality & o ORGANIZATION – personality is a coherent whole, not list of traits adulthood attitudes  reproduction & society contribution urge o DYNAMIC – goal seeking, sensitive to context, adaptive to enviro  Progressions through psychosexual stages affects personality o PSYCHOPHYSICAL SYSTEMS – psychological nature of personality,  some fixated at certain stage, b/c excessive parental arise from basic biological processes restriction/indulgence o CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORS, thoughts from personality  ORAL PERSONALITIES – develop b/c fixated at oral stage;  think, feel things relatively consistently over time excessively needy, seek pleasure through mouth w/  Psychodynamic & Humanistic explains mental process shape personality smoking o same underlying process, individual results differ  ANAL-RETENTIVE PERSONALITIES – develop b/c fixated at  PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES – Freudian Theory that unconscious forces, anal stage by overly strict toilet training, excessively rule- such as wishes and motives, influence behavior. based child rearing; stubborn, highly regulating o INSTINCTS – mental representations arise from biological/physical o Structural Model of Personality needs, unconscious forces, influence behavior  ID – psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that  PLEASURE PRINCIPLE – direct ppl to seek pleasure, avoid pain; to is complete submerged in the unconscious and satisfy LIFE INSTINCT  operates according to the Pleasure Principle.  LIBIDO – energy that drives pleasure principle  sex & aggression = innate forces driving id  SUPEREGO – psychodynamic theory, the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct. Oppose ID  developed during phallic phase  Moral Principle – ridge morality/conscience structure,  EGO – psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego.  Reality Principle – ego operates according to this, involve rational thought & problem solving  Conflicts btwn id & superego  anxiety  DEFENSE MECHANISMS – unconscious mental strategies the ego uses to protect itself from conflict and distress, or protect self esteem  Rationalize Behaviors – defense mechanism, blame situational factors  Reaction Formation – defense mechanism, counter uncomfortable thought about self by embracing opposite thought –ex. homophobia b/c homosexual impulses o Topographical Model of Mind = proposed structure of the mind, 3 repression zones of mental awareness o Neo-Freudians, modify Freud’s ideas w/ own psychodynamic theories  OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY – attachment to object = another  CONSCIOUS LEVEL – people aware of their thoughts  PRECONSCIOUS LEVEL – content not currently aware, but could person be brought to awareness (LTM)  focus social interactions, reject sexual forces emphasis  UNCONSCIOUS LEVEL – materials cannot easily retrieve  many reject psychodynamic theories b/c central premises cannot be examined w/ scientific methods  contains wishes, desires, motives, associated w/ conflict, anxiety, pain protected from person to minimize distress  HUMANISTIC APPROACHES – Approaches to studying personality that  FREUDIAN SLIP – unconscious info leaked into emphasize personal experience and belief systems; propose that people consciousness, reveal hidden motive seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential (Self-Actualization) o humanism focus subjective human experience (Phenomenology) o Development of Sexual Instincts, early childhood experiences major  view each person inherently good, self-actualization = ultimate impact on personality development  PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGE – Freudian, the developmental stages most important human motive that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges o PERSON-CENTERED APPROACH to personality, emphasize people’s  Each stage libido focused on one erogenous zone personal understandings  therapeutic technique: therapist create supportive/accepting  ORAL STAGE – (birth  18 mo.) pleasure sought through mouth  infants breastfeed, associated pleasure w/ sucking environment;  ANAL STAGE – (2 – 3 yr.) toilet training, focus on anus  deal w/ client problems/concerns by their understanding  learned control bowels o UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD, from parents to raise children  conditional love: affect personality dev. harmfully  PHALLIC STAGE (3 – 5 yr.) libidinal energies directed at genitals  Oedipus Complex – children’s desire an exclusive  children abandon true feelings, dreams, desires, accept relationship w/ opposite-sex parent, dev. hostility only parts of self that elicit parental love/support towards same-sex parent  unconditional: children accepted, loved, prized  may expression disapproval of bad behavior, but w/i  dev. unconscious wish kill one parent, claim other  context ensures children still loved conflict resolved w/ identification w/ same-sex parent, adopt their values & beliefs  Result: FULLY FUNCTIONING PERSON – healthy self-esteem o POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY MOVEMENT – use scientific methods, study  CONSCIENTIOUSNESS humanity’s positive aspects: faith, values, creativity, courage, hope  Organized, Careful, Self-disciplined; vs.  SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING – general term for degree of  Disorganized, Careless, Weak-willed happiness/satisfaction ppl feel  EXTROVERSION  well-being varies btwn cultures, high w/ wealthy  Social, Fun-loving, Affectionate; vs. countries  agree w/ Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Retiring, Sober, Reserved  BROADEN-AND-BUILD THEORY – positive emotions prompt ppl  AGREEABLENESS consider novel solutions to problems  Softhearted, Trusting, Helpful; vs.  more resilient ppl draw on positive emotions deal w/  Ruthless, Suspicious, Uncooperative setbacks/negative life experiences/stress  NEUROTICISM  Type and Trait Approaches – descriptive approach to personality  Worried, Insecure, Self-pitying; vs. o PERSONALITY TYPES – discrete categories based on global  Calm, Secure, Self-satisfied personality characteristics.  Empirical support across cultures, btwn ages on various studies  IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORY – tendency to assume certain  problem: descriptive not explanatory, reduce human personality characteristics go together, make predictions about ppl based on minimal evidence personality to five dimension ignore individual subtleties  Learning and Cognitive Processes o TRAIT APPROACH – an approach to studying personality that focuses o Behaviorists Skinner view personality mainly learned responses w/ on the extent to which individuals differ in personality disposition. reinforcement, not internal processes  PERSONALITY TRAIT – A characteristic; a dispositional tendency o Kelly: ppl’s understanding (PERSONAL CONSTRUCTS) of to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances. circumstances important  personal theories of how world works  FACTOR ANALYSIS – Raymond Cattell grouped similar traits,  constantly testing out theories w/ observations, revisions found 16 dimensions of personality  dev. from personal experiences & interpretations/explanation of  intelligence, sensitivity, dominance, self-reliance events in their social world o EYSENCK’S HIERARCHICAL MODEL of Personality  SPECIFIC RESPONSE LEVEL – observed behavior
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