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People’s Experience of the World is Highly Subjective.docx

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Ashley W.Denton

People’s Experience of the World is Highly Subjective Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception (Pages 187 ­ 239) • Sensation: sense organ’s detection of & response to external stimuli and how those responses are transmitted to the brain • Perception: brain’s further processing of signals which results in internal representation of stimuli • What we sense is a result of brain processes that construct perceptual experience & allow us to adapt to our environment’s details. • Sensory coding: sensory organs’translation of stimuli’s physical properties into neural impulses o Transduction: sensory receptors pass impulses to connecting neurons when the receptor receives stimulation  Thalamus à info sent to cortex à interpretation o Taste: molecules dissolved in fluidàTaste buds àFacial, glossopharyngeal, vagus nerves o Smell: molecules dissolved in fluid in mucous membrane à sensitive ends à olfactory o Touch: pressure on skin à sensitive ends à Trigeminal nerve, spinal nerve o Hearing: sound waves à P-sensitive hair cells in cochlea à Auditory o Vision: light waves à light sensitive rods & cones à optic nerve • Only neurons in sensory organs respond directly to events in the world • Absolute threshold: minimum intensity of stimulation • Difference threshold: minimum amount of change required for a person to detect a difference o Weber’s Law: noticeable difference is based on proportion • Signal detection theory: detection of faint stimuli requires judgment (all-or-none) o Research: hit, false alarm, miss, correct rejection o Response bias: report detecting signal in an ambiguous trial • Sensory adaptation: decrease in sensitivity to constant level of stimuli • Basic sensory processes o Taste (gustation), taste buds (papillae), (5 types)  Supertasters dislike bitter substance & have 6x taste buds  Cultural influences on food begin in the womb o Smell (olfaction): direct route to brain but may be the least understood  Olfactory epithelium: thin layer of tissue with receptors  Olfactory bulb: brain center for smell below frontal lobes • Prefrontal cortex: pleasant or not • Amygdala: intensity  Hard to identify odors by name  Deterioration related toAlzheimer’s o Touch (haptic): temperature, pressure, pain  Tactile stimulation: anything that makes contact with skin  Temperature (hot & cold; skin’s outer layer) & pressure (hair follicles)  Pain (experience created by brain): thinner nerves • Fast: sharp, immediate; recoil • Slow: chronic, dull, steady; keeps us from using body parts  Gate control theory: to experience pain receptors must be activated & spinal neural gate must allow passage • Sensory fibers can close a gate & reduce pain perception • Worrying opens gates wider  Both sensory & emotional experience • One side feels pain the other processes emotion (not hemispherical) o Hear (audition) [2]  Sound wave = displacement of air particles • Amplitude = loudness • Frequency = pitch  Outer ear à auditory canal à ear drum (middle ear) à vibrations à ossicles (hammer, anvil, stirrup) à oval window (cochlea/inner ear) à hair cells  Barn owl locates sound using time it takes for sound to arrive & intensity from both ears o See  Cornea (refracts more), iris, pupil, lens (accommodates), retina  Rods: B&W  Cones: color; concentrated = fovea • Short = blue • Medium = green • Long = red st  Stimuli à rods & cones à other cells à retinal ganglion cell (1 to generate action potential) à optic nerve (blind spot) à thalamus  Optic chiasm = crossing  Receptive field: regions of space to which neurons in the primary visual cortex are sensitive  Lateral inhibition: adjacent photoreceptors inhibit one another  Colors: light waves reflected; hue, saturation, brightness; result from visual systems  Subtractive: physical, occurs within a stimulus  Additive: psychological, wavelengths with receptors  Simultaneous contrast • Other senses o Kinesthetic: from muscles, tendons, joints o Vestibular: balance (hair & liquid in semicircular canal) o Sonar: navigation o Electroreception: sense energy • Extrasensory Perception (ESP) doesn’t exist • Primary sensory areas o Hearing: primary auditory cortex (A1) code for pitch; front = higher o Touch: primary somatosensory cortex (S1) o Vision: primary visual cortex (V1)  Simple cells  Beyond V1 • Dorsal (upper): where • Ventral (lower): what  Object agnosia: inability to recognize objects • Illusions o Gestalt principle: brain uses innate principles to organize sensory info  Proximity: closer objects are grouped together or become one object  Similarity: resemblance between objects  Good continuation: interpret lines as continuous  Closure: tendency to complete figures with gaps  Illusory contours: perceive boundaries even when they don’t exist o Reversible figure illusion: figure vs ground  Easterners: ground  Westerners: figure o Bottom-up: lower to higher levels of processing o Top-down: higher to lower levels of processing o Face perception  Fusiform gyrus à right hemisphere o Depth  Binocular depth cues: due to 2 eyes  Monocular depth cues: to each eye alone • Pictorial depth cues: occlusion, relative size, familiar size, linear perspective, texture gradient, position relative to horizon  Binocular (retinal) disparity: due to distance between eyes à difference between images that each eye gets  Stereoscopic vision: determine depth based on projections  Mueller-Lyer illusion: 2 lines . . .
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