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The Mind is Adaptive I.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley W.Denton

The Mind is Adaptive I Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion (Pages 416 ­ 435) • Emotions: feelings involving subjective evaluation, physiological processes & cognitive beliefs o Moods vs emotion à verbal vs non-verbal • Whole face à mouth more important Parts only (mouth vs eyes) à eyes • Some facial expressions are universal & therefore likely biologically based. • Display rules: dictate which emotions are suitable • Women vs men • Emotion and cognition are inseparable • Good moods • Decision making à anticipated emotional state, current feelings; cognition < emotion o Affect-as-information theory: use current moods to make decision • Somatic markers: bodily reactions that affect actions & decisions • Guilt: anxiety, tension, agitation; +ve o Socialization > biological • Embarrassment: inter-personal awkwardness, • Blushing: when people think that others view them negatively; shows a realization of interpersonal errors • Mood disorder à over-emotional • Alexithymia à under-emotional; psychological messages associated with emotion don’t reach the brain centers o Damage to prefrontal cortex à loss of mood’s subjectivity • Primary emotions: evolutionary adaptive, shared across cultures, associated with specific biological & physical states o Anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness --- surprise & contempt • Secondary emotions: blends of primary emotions o Guilt, submission, anticipation • Circumplex Map: emotions around a circle in 2 core dimensions o Valence: negative or positive o Activation: arousing or not o It is possible to experience two types of emotions simultaneously • William James: physical changes à specific emotions • James-Lange theory of emotion o Mould facial expression to mimic an emotional state à activate associated neurons • Cannon-Bard theory of emotion o Info is processed independently in cortical & sub-cortical structures causing the experience of two separate things almost at the same time  Emotion (cortex)  Physical reaction (sub-cortex) • Damage to amygdala: feel fear but no conditioned fear • Info reaches the amygdala in 2 ways o Quick & dirty: process sensory info instantaneously (thalamus à amygdala) o Thorough evaluations (thalamus à visual cortex) o Amygdala has greater activity when looking at frightened faces  Damage: impairment in identifying fearful faces • Damage to the middle of the prefrontal cortex o Insensitive to somatic markers o Info has lost most of its affective meaning • Cerebral asymmetry o Right: negative affect o Left: positive affect o One hemisphere could be dominant à bias emotion • Stanely Schachter: 2-factor theory: a situation evokes a physiological response & cognitive interpretation or emotional label (determined by the cause of emotion) o Adrenaline vs placebo & happy vs angry • Misattribution of arousal: misidentify source of arousal o Interview on a suspension bridge vs on a normal bridge o Excitation transfer: residual physiological arousal caused by one event is transferred to a new stimuli • Engaging in reappraisal changes the activity of brain regions involved o Humor: increases positive affects o Suppression: attempt not to feel or respond à rebound effect (think more about something after suppression) o Rumination: thinking about & elaborating on unwanted thoughts o Distraction is the best way to avoid problems à absorbs attention; could backfire if thinking about other problems Chapter 11: Human Development (Pages 481 ­ 531) • Developmental psychology: study of changes in physiology, cognition & social behavior • Physical development o Basic brain areas: by week 4 o Cortex cells: week 7 o Thalamus & hippocampus: week 10 o Right & left hemispheres: week 12 o Lower thyroid = lower IQ o Teratogens: environmental stimuli that harm embryo or fetus  Fetal alcohol syndrome: low birth weight, face & head abnormalities, slight mental retardation, behavioral & cognitive problems • Newborns: 5 senses, reflexes à already highly developed o Grasping reflex, rooting reflex • Myelination: begins on the spinal cord during first trimester o Synaptic pruning: frequently used connections are preserved, unused ones are lost (plasticity) • Critical periods: biologically determined time periods for development of specific skills • Sensitive periods: biologically determined time periods when specific skills develop most easily; less strict version of critical periods • Attachment: a strong emotional connection that persists over time & across circumstances; adaptive o Konrad Lorenz: imprinting in geese o Harry Harlow: rhesus monkey o Styles [when caregiver leaves; when caregiver is present] mostly due to caregivers  Secure: distressed; easily comforted; 65%  Avoidant: not distressed; avoids; 20-25%  Anxious-ambivalent: inconsolably upset; seek & reject; 10-15%  Disorganized attachment: mixed response o Chemistry: release of oxytocin • Infant research techniques o Preferential-
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