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The Mind is Adaptive II.docx

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Ashley W.Denton

The Mind is Adaptive II Chapter 4: The Mind and Consciousness (Pages 155 ­ 165) • Brain doesn’t shut off • You have some awareness while sleeping • You dream in both REM & non­REM sleep • You learn while sleeping • Alcohol may help you fall asleep faster but the sleep is much worse o Lightens sleep, less REM, wake more frequently, trouble returning to sleep • During sleep, the brain is still active; conscious experience of the outside world is turned off but still aware of surroundings. o Awake: brain neurons are extremely active à Beta waves o Asleep: Alpha waves • Stages of sleep o Stage 1: Theta waves à light sleep, can be aroused easily, see fantastical images or geometric shapes, sensation of falling or jerking limbs o Stage 2: more regular breathing, sleep spindles (occasional burst of activity) & k- Brain works to maintainxes (large waves) sleep  Abrupt noise à k-complexes  People age & sleep lighter à fewer spindles  Stages 3 & 4: Delta waves, slow wave sleep à very hard to wake & often disoriented when waking up • REM sleep à after 90 min of sleep the sleep cycle reverses; eyes dart back & forth beneath the eye lids o Paradoxical sleep à sleeping body with active brain o Occipital cortex & brain stem regions are more active and genital arousal • As morning comes sleep cycle becomes shorter à more time in REM • Sleep Disorders o Insomnia: inability to sleep  Pseudo-insomnia: people are asleep but they dream that they are not sleeping  Cause: worrying about sleep (anxiety) à take pills which becomes ineffective in the long run; poor sleeping habits  Treatment: Cognitive-behavioral Therapy (CBT) à use with drug & discontinue drug before end of therapy o Sleep Apnea: stop breathing while asleep à sleep disruption  Symptoms: loud snoring  Treatment: CPAP à blows air while a person is sleeping o Narcolepsy: excessive sleepiness during waking hours  Genetic condition affecting neural transmission of neurotransmitters to the hypothalamus  Symptoms: muscle paralysis, REM sleep, go limp & collapse  Treatment: stimulant modafinil o REM behavior disorder: normal paralysis is disabled (people act out their dreams)  Cause: neurological deficit o Somnambulism (sleep walking) occurs in stage 4, common in young kids, within hour of two • Sleep is adaptive o Restoration & deprivation  Restorative theory: sleep allows brain & body to rest & to repair themselves • GH released, replenish glycogen, strengthen immune system  Deprivation: inc activity in prefrontal cortex, unable to perform quite tasks • Extended sleep deprivation: mood problems, dec cognitive performance, attention lapse, reduced short term memory, weaken immune system, death • Prone to microsleeps: sleep during day ranging from a few second to a min • Helps people overcome depression [increased serotonin receptors] o Circadian rhythms: regulation of biological patterns  Body T, hormones, sleep/wake  Circadian theory: sleep has evolved to keep people quiet & inactive during times of danger & when it’s dark • Small animals sleep a lot • Large vulnerable animals sleep little • Large predatory animals sleep a lot o Facilitation of learning: strengthens neural connections that serve for learning  Better performance of dreaming about the task  Infants learn a lot à More REM sleep  Sleep deprived à loss of memory • Pineal gland à melatonin • SLEEPLESS: gene that influences sleep à regulates protein that reduces action potentials in the brain • Stimulating reticular formation in brain stem increases arousal in cerebral cortex o Cut fibers à animals fall asleep & stay asleep until they die o Low levels à sleep High levels à awakening • Basal forebrain induces non-REM sleep o Lesion à insomnia • Dreams: product of altered state of consciousness in which images & fantasies are confused with reality o REM: bizarre, intense emotions, visual & auditory hallucinations [taste, smell, pain à rare], illogical contents, uncritical acceptance of events o Non-REM: dull, mundane activities [sitting in class etc] • REM might be connected to the dreams’ content rather than producing dream state o dreams’ content ß motivation, emotion, reward o Emotion centers & visual association areas interact without self-awareness, reflective thought, conscious input • Dream meanings o Manifest content: the way the dreamer remembers it o Latent content: what the dream symbolizes • Activation-synthesis hypothesis: random neural stimulations activate mechanisms that normally interpret visual input à epiphenomenal [side effects of mental process] • Evolved threat rehearsal strategies o Activation of limbic structures like the amygdala Chapter 6: Learning (Pages 243 ­ 284) • Learning: enduring change in behavior resulting from experience; essence à understanding how  events are related • Conditioning: environmental & behavioral responses become connected o Classical (Pavlovian): neutral stimulus à reflexive response  US (food), UR (salivate), CS (tone), CR (salivate)  Acquisition: learning to respond  Extinction: CR will be weak  Spontaneous recovery: CR comes back with presentation of CS  Stimulus   generalization:   similar   but   not   identical   stimuli   (different   tone)  produces the CR  Stimulus discrimination: differentiate between similar stimuli when one has the  UR  SECOND ORDER: CS paired with another stimulus [tone à red light]  Phobias: acquired fear that are out of proportion to real threat • Albert à white rat à loud noise [amygdala is important]  Some associations are easier to learn • Condition food aversion: eat à sick [one trial] • Biological preparedness: genetically programmed to fear some things  Rescoria­Wagner model: Pairing of CS (1st) & US (later) • Slight delay between CS & US [tone is a signal that the food is about to  appear] • Look for cues o Operant (Instrumental): consequences of action & outcome  Thorndike’s law of effect: do sth à good things happen à repeat that behavior  Train animals  Reinforcer: stimulus that increases likelihood of behavior being repeated • Primary: biological • Secondary: money  Shaping:   reinforcing  behavior   that   are  increasingly   similar   to   the  desired  behavior [closer to hoop à reward]; successive approximations  Positive reinforcement (add sth): inc behavior being repeated [warrant doing  dishes]  Negative reinforcement (take sth): inc behavior being repeated [seatbelt buzzer]  Positive punishment (add sth): dec behavior being repeated [Mia drinking]  Negative punishment (take sth): dec behavior being repeated [17 year old  speeding]  Continuous: every time à fast learning & fast extinguishing  Partial: reinforce intermittently [R>I] [V>F] • Ratio schedule: #times behavior occurs • Interval schedule: passage of time • Fixed schedule: consistent & predictable • Variable schedule: unpredictable  Biological constraints: difficulty learning incompatible behavior • Easier when using built­in behavior • Observational: watching somebody else o Bobo Doll experiment [Vicarious reinforcement] • Biological basis o Activation of dopamine neurons in the nucleus accumbens [deprived à more dopamine à  more reinforcing] • Learning: an enduring change in behavior that results from experience • Essence of learning is association • Freudian theory: verbal report techniques & free association • John B Watson: observable • Conditioning: process in which environmental stimuli & behavioral responses become connected o Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning: events going together; passive  Pavlov’s experiment • Conditioning trial vs critical trial • UR: unlearned, automatic behavior • US: elicits response without prior learning • CS: elicits response only after learning • CR: learned response towards CS (somewhat different in intensity )  Acquisition: gradual formation of association between CS & US • US is presented just before CS  Extinction: CR is weakened when CS no longer predicts US  Spontaneous recovery: weak CR re-emerges when CS is presented; temporary unless CS is paired with US  Stimulus generalization: stimuli similar but not identical to CS produce CR  Stimuli discrimination: differentiation between stimuli when one is consistently associated with US  Second-order conditioning: CS a1sociates with US 2  Phobia: acquired fear that’s out of proportion to real threat • Fear conditioning: train animals to fear neutral objects [amygdala]  To disprove Freudian ideas John B Watson carried out an experiment • Little Albert: sound (US), fear (UR/CR), rat (CS)  Counter-conditioning: helps overcome fear • Joseph Wolpe à systematic desensitization o CSàCR (f1ar) breaks; CSàCR (rel2xation) forms  Conditioned addiction: effect of environmental cues • Activation of prefrontal cortex & regions of the limbic system  Not all stimuli are equally effective in producing learning • Conditioned food aversion: eating food & getting sick • Biological preparedness: helps explain why animals tend to fear potentially dangerous things  Men vs women: learning way through the environment  Guilt by association, virtue by association  Cognitive perceptive: increasing consideration of mental process • Rescorla-Wagner model: strength of CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the US is unexpected • Blocking effect: CS can prevent the acquisition of a new CS o Occasion setter [page 257] o Operant (Instrumental) conditioning: behavior leads to an outcome; determined by consequences [might take time to get desired behavior]; active
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