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Behavior is Determined by Multiple Factors I.docx

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Ashley W.Denton

Behavior is Determined by Multiple Factors I Chapter 3: Biological Foundations (Pages 81­ 124) • Chromosomes, genes (dominant vs. recessive), genotype, phenotype, polygenic • Heredity: transfer of genes from parents to off-springs • Heritability: estimate of genetic variation • Neurons (sensory, motor, interneuron) o Dendrites, cell body, terminal buttons, synapse, myelin sheath, Nodes of Ranvier • Resting Potential: inside is negative o Polarization: changing the difference in electrical charge (more K in cell)  Na-K pump: increase K & decrease Na inside cell o Ion flow is affected by cell membranes selective permeability & the gating mechanisms. • Action Potential: neural impulse that passes along the axon and causes the release of chemicals from terminal buttons; neural firing. o Neuron gets chemical signals which affect polarization.  Excitatory: depolarize cell membrane increasing the probability of firing  Inhibitory: hyperpolarize the cell membrane decreasing the probability of firing  Firing: Na gates open à Na rushes into neuron à Inside becomes slightly more +ve à K gates open à K rushes out of neuron à Inside becomes more +ve à Na gates close à K gates close o Propagation: action potential moving along the axon  Ion channels open successively moving away from cell body to terminal buttons  Action potential quickly skips along the axon  Deterioration of myelin sheath o All-or-none principle: a neuron fires with the same potency each time • Neurotransmitter: chemical substance that carries signals • The binding of neurotransmitter with a receptor produces an inhibitory or excitatory signal. o Reuptake: neurotransmitters are taken back into the pre-synaptic terminal buttons o Enzyme deactivation: enzymes destroy the neurotransmitters o Auto-reception: signal pre-synaptic neuron to stop releasing neurotransmitters • Drugs & toxins o Agonists: enhance neurotransmitters’ action o Antagonists: inhibit neurotransmitters’ action • Types of neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine (ACh): motor control, mental processes (learning,
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