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Behavior is Determined by Multiple Factors Part II.docx

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Ashley W.Denton

Behavior is Determined by Multiple Factors II Chapter 10: Health and Well­Being (Pages 439 ­ 456) • Health psychology, well-being, Biopsychosocial model • Epigenetics: changes in gene expression due to non-genetic influences • People are most likely to die from causes that stem from their own behaviors. • Regression to the mean: a more extreme event will tend to be followed by an event closer to the average or the mean. • Placebo effect • Stress: pattern of behavioral, psychological & physiological responses to events that match or exceed an organism’s ability to respond o Eustress: +ve events o Distress: -ve events o Major life stressors Vs daily hassles • Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) • Fight-or-flight response • Tend-and-befriend response: tendency of females to protect & care for their offspringàalliance o Oxytocin: important for mothers in bonding with newborns • General adaptation syndrome: Hans Selye; alarm, resistance, exhaustion • Heart: pumps 7,500L of blood by beating >100,000 times each day o Type A: competitive, achievement-oriented, aggressive, hostile, time-pressed, impatient, confrontational è heart disease, high blood pressure, cholesterol o Type B: relaxed, non-competitive, easygoing, accommodating o Allostatic load theory of illness: continual stress prevents the body from returning to bodily states characterized by normal stress levels ~ Homeostasis • Coping o Primary appraisal: stressful or not o Secondary appraisal: evaluate options & coping mechanisms  Anticipatory coping: before the onset of future stressors  Emotion-focused coping: avoiding, minimizing problems, eating/drinking  Problem-focused coping: generating alternative solutions, weighing, choosing • Positive reappraisal: focus on possible good things • Downward comparison: compare oneself to those who are worse off  Hardiness (resiliency): commitment, challenge, control o Social support  Tangible: provide help while taking on some responsibilities  Informational: offering advice  Esteem: building confidence  Emotional: physical comfort, listening, empathizing • Buffering hypothesis  Emotional disclosure, exercise Chapter 14: Psychological disorders (Pages 629 ­ 674) • Diathesis-stress model: underlying vulnerability couples with a precipitating event • Family systems model: social context • Socio-cultural model: between individual & culture • Cognitive-behavioral approach: mal-adaptive thoughts & beliefs • Diagnostic & statistical manual of mental disorder (DSM IV) Multi-axial system o Axis I: Clinical disorders o Axis II: Personality disorders & mental retardation o Axi
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