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Chapter 7-9

PSYC31 Ch. 7-9.docx

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 7 Tests of Intellectual AbilitiesCase Vignette TerminologyIndividual Educational Plan IEP a plan to address each of the stated needs of the student with specific concrete goaloriented programsPublic Law 94142Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 a law that states that all children in the US are entitled to a free and public education in the least restrictive envir Mainstream the practice of bringing students out of the isolation of special schools and into the mainstream of student life students in special ed classes are integrated into the general classroom Activities of daily learning activities that any individual does on a daily basis such as personal hygiene cooking and meal planning going to work or school and leisure activities WISCIV the most current form of the Wechsler scales designed for use with children it yields a Full Scale IQ and composite scores measuring Verbal Comprehension Perceptual Reasoning Working Memory and Processing Speed Tests of Variables of Attention TOVA a computerized test designed to detect symptoms of ADHD Test ConstructionTest construction begins with a domain that the researcher wants to sample Then test items are needed to measure the concept then given to people for a testrun Then a factor analysis is used to determine the degree to which each item is related to the construct that the test says it measures Standardization is the next step After that norms are established by administering the test to a large population to construct a normal distribution to allow ranking of future test takers Raw scores can be converted to scaled scores that allows for a numerical comparison among participants A scaled score is the standard score which is an score expressed in units of standard deviations of the distribution of scores in the population with the mean set at zero ReliabilityReliability the extent to which a test is repeatable and yields consistent scores Variance in a population of samples the mean of the square of the differences between the respective samples and their mean Error variance any condition that is irrelevant to the purpose of the test uniformtesting conditions try to prevent error variance Correlation coefficient a number between 1 and 1 which measures the degree to which two variables are linearly relatedTestretest reliability involves administering the test to the same group of people at least twice the first set of scores is then correlated with the second set of scores Alternateform reliability the same people are tested with one form of a test on one occasion and with another equivalent form on a second occasion the correlation between the scores represents the reliability coefficient Splithalf reliability a measure of the reliability of a test based on the correlation between scores on two halves of the test often the odd and evennumbered test items KuderRichardson developed the most common procedure for finding interitem consistency This technique is based on the performance of each item Unless the items are highly homogeneous the KuderRichardson coefficient will be lower than the splithalf coefficient The 1difference between the KuderRichardson coefficient and the splithalf coefficient serves as a rough index of the heterogeneity of the testValidity Content validity the extent to which the items of a test or procedure are in fact a representative sample of that which is to be measured Face validity appearance of the test in terms of the content to be measured by the testtakerThe Beck Depression InventoryII is an example of a face valid test Criterion validity the effectiveness of the test in predicting behavioral criteria Construct validity refers to whether a scale measures the unobservable social construct that it says it measures it is related to the theoretical ideas behind the trait being studied Ex processing speed attention or concept formation Internal consistency a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test or the same subscale on a larger test it measures several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores Convergent validation the test correlates highly with other variables with which it theoretically should Discriminant validation the test should not correlate with variables with which it should differMultitraitmultimethod matrix to directly evaluate convergent and discriminant validation The procedure assesses two or more traits by two or more methods Metaanalysis yay the evaluation of multiple studies using factor analytic methodology Effect sizes are taken into account Effect sizes are basically the degree of statistical significance in the data Ethics in Testing and AssessmentThe APAs Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct contains statements that elaborate upon two basic issues which are technical standards used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the test and standards for the professional use of tests ndThe 2 document is the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testingwhich discusses the appropriate technical and professional standards to be followed in construction evaluation interpretation and application of psychological testsrdThe 3 document is the International Guidelines for Test Use this document overlaps with the previous two History of Intellectual AssessmentThe earliest use of assessments was from the Chinese Empire for civil service examinationsThe Greeks used testing to measure physical as well as intellectual skills Beginning in the Middle Ages European universities used formal examinations to give degreesFirst in France and then the US there was a need to determine the level of ability of students ththThen at the end of the 19 and early 20 centuries tests helped to determine the literacy and potential of soldiers as they entered the service Jean Esquirol in 1838 was probably the first to make a distinction between individuals based on testing information He concluded that the individuals use of language provided the most dependable criteria for intellectual level 2
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