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Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)
Chapter 7

PSYC62 - Chapter 7.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Michelle Hilscher

CHAPTER 7Nicotine and CaffeineNicotineKey Psychoactive Ingredient in TobaccoTobacco consists of leaves from plants in genus NicotianaPrimary nicotinecontaining species grow in South and North AmericaForms of tobaccorolled tobacco leaves cigars and cigarettesTarParticles released from tobacco that contain nicotine and other tobacco chemicalsCigarettes are most commonly used tobacco productcomposed of tobacco blend rolled in thin sheet of paperotypical user consumes 13dayocontain filter of cellulose acetate that reduces amount of tobacco tar inhaledoregular cigarettetobacco portion is 60 mm in length 12 mg of nicotineofiltered cigarette25 mm filter and shorter length of tobaccocigars vary in diameter length and nicotine contentoWinchester Little Cigar8 mm in diameter 60 mm long 59 mg of nicotineoCuestaRey No 120 mm in diameter 211 mm long 3352 mg of nicotineWater pipehookah is prevalent among young adultsoInhaled tobacco smoke first passes through bowl of waterreduces harmful effects of tobaccoSmokeless tobacco products intended for absorption in mouthoChew snuff dipping tobacco consists of tobacco blend that user chews or pockets in cheekafter product is spent users spit tobacco outoDissolvable tobacco come in form of sweetened strips 06mg sticks31mg or pellets that dissolve in mouthcontain amounts of nicotine similar to those found in cigarettesTobacco use is declining in US but trend not found for all tobacco products cigar use is increasing due to aggressive marketing and users perceive cigars as safer alternative to cigarettesTobacco use high in Europe Asia highest Central and South AmericaMales generally use tobacco products more than females but varies across countries3 primary causes of tobaccorelated death cancersecondhand smoke pulmonary disease and cardiovascular diseaseDiscovery of TobaccoTobacco existed at least 25 million years agoIndigenous peoples smoked tobacco as part of religious practicesNative Arawak gave dried tobacco leaves as a gift to ColumbusRodrigo de Jerez member of Columbuss expedition was first European to smoke tobacco1610 Sir Francis Bacon noted difficulty in quitting tobacco use1634 Russian Tsar Michael I decreed punishment for tobacco use1612 John Rolfe raised first European tobacco crop for commercial user1809 Louis Vanquelin isolated nicotine as key ingredient in tobacco1938 Raymond Pearlheavy smokers live a shorter life than nonsmokers1990s health risks of tobacco well characterized and widely publicized but still sold legally throughout world must include special health warning labelsPharmacokinetic Properties and Tobacco UseNicotine Absorption through Lung and Oral TissuesSmoking tobacco is most common administration route for nicotineTar adheres to tissues in mouth nose throat lungs and skinnicotine and chemicals found in tar are absorbed into bloodstreamFreebase form of nicotine best absorbs through mucous membranes in mouth 50 at pH 802
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