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Chapter 4

PSYC62 - Chapter 4.docx

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Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 4Properties of DrugsDo Environmental Stimuli Contribute to Heroin ToleranceChronic heroin users have significant experience using heroin and exhibit tolerance for the drugCondition changes partly account for heroin overdose in experienced usersPharmacokinetic Properties and Drug Passage Through the BodyHow drug is administered how its absorbed into bloodstream permeates different body parts and is eliminated from bodyAbsorptionAbsorptionEntry of a drug into the circulatory systemMust pass through different membranes eg mucus membrane of mouthintestinedepends on drugs route of administrationMost therapeutic drugs are orally administered easierstomachintestines most drug absorption occurs in small intestineMust protect drug from digestive acids of stomachencase drug within tabletcapsulereduces amount of drug that reaches bloodstreamDuration of time need for drug to pass through digestive system delays drug effectsdepend on chemical properties of drug and substance it is delivered inMost drugs take several minutes to reach bloodstreamoIntestinal absorption may take 15 minutes to 1 houroAcetaminophenTylenol takes 30 minutes to provide headache reliefInhalation of albuterol treats asthma or addictive substances tobaccooDrugs enter circulatory system through lungs and membranes in nose mouth and throatoNot all of inhaled substances absorbs through tissue to reach bloodstreamoInhaled substances absorb more quickly that oral administration eg smoking tobacco takes 7 seconds to reach brainIntravenous injectiondrug delivery into vein through hypodermic needle
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