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Chapter 5

PSYC62 - Chapter 5.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 5Drugs of AbuseJames Oldss Important DiscoveryJames Oldss convinced all valid psychological theories could be successfully linked to nervous system functioningOlds could purposely attract rat to different areas of box with activated electrodeMissed reticular activating system but discovered the brains reward centerKey motivational process for behavior and biological property for drugs of abuseDifference between instrumental use and recreational use is persons intentmotivation for using the substanceRegulatory Agencies and Drug ClassificationDescribe drugs based on intended use and characterize drugs by legal statusLaws limit availability of drugs with risk of abuse1915 Harrison Narcotics Act restricted sale of narcotics opioid drugs to medical usesexclude treating withdrawal symptoms in opioid dependence1970 Controlled Substances Act described drugs of abuse as controlled substancesclassification system for ranking drugs by abuse potential and proven medical useUS Drug Enforcement Administration DEA5 schedules to categorize drugs of abuseoSchedule V drugs have low abuse potential and legitimate medical purposes eg codeine is opioid drug in cough syrupsoLower schedule numbergreater potential for abuseoSchedule II controlled substances have high abuse potential but legitimate medical uses eg cocaine is local anestheticoSchedule I controlled substances have high abuse potential and no legitimate medical usesUK assess harm caused by abused drugs according to 3 classification levelsoClass A drugs cause most harm and carry stiffest penalties for possession and drug dealing eg MDMA cocaine psychedelic mushroomsoClass C drugs cause least harm and carry lightest penalties for possession and drug dealing eg barbiturates ketamine GHBoClass B drugs have moderate potential for harm eg marijuanaCriticism of controlled substances scheduleso1Appropriateness of drug schedulingo2Methods used to schedule drugs Jack Henningfield and Neal Benowitz ranked abused drugs according to severity as measured by withdrawal symptoms tolerance reinforcing effects addiction and intoxicationgreatest addiction risk nicotine heroin cocaine alcohol caffeine marijuana least addiction riskAlcohol has worst withdrawal symptoms and cocaine has strongest reinforcing effectsMarijuana is one of least serious drugs among these categoriesoAlcohol and nicotine are not scheduled substances but marijuana and constituents THC are schedule I controlled substancesSlow response to new drugs of abuse club drugs are not currently scheduled substancesoDEA schedules drugs after sufficient scientific evidence and druguse statisticscan take yearsClandestine drug suppliers develop designer drugs to circumvent existing drug schedules eg 14butandiol GBL are not listed on controlled substances listings and do not elicit rewarding effectsmetabolically convert to GHB schedule I drug when enter liverNutt et al 2007 offered alternative approach for drug schedulingoPhysical harmdamage to body such as impairment of heart or liver functionoAddictioninability to stop taking a drug along with factors used in clinical diagnosis of substance dependenceoSocietal harmranges from harm to family and other social relationships to costs associated with health care and law enforcement
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