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Chapter 3

PSYC62 - Chapter 3.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 3NeurotransmissionDrugs for Alzheimers Disease Alter Acetylcholine NeurotransmissionAlzheimers Diseasea neurobiological illness characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive functioning Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor enhances levels of acetylcholine neurotransmitter in brainrestored cognitive functioning for a year but not a cureNeurological disorders address neurotransmission abnormalities in nervous systemNeurotransmissionTransmission of information between neuronsoNeuron releases chemicals neurotransmitters into synapse which act on sites on another neuronElectrical Events Within a Neuron and the Release of NeurotransmittersElectrical transmissionSeries of electrical events that begin at an axon hillock and proceed down the length of an axon depend on electrical potentialsElectrical potentialDifference between the electrical charge within a neuron versus the electrical charge of the environment immediately outside the neuronNormally electrical charge within neuron is negative compared to outside environmentneurons membrane polarizedone side negative charge other side positive chargePolarizationThe charges are different on each side of the membraneDepolarizationReduced difference between the positive and negative charges on each side of a membraneHyperpolarizationIncreased difference between the positive and negative charges on each side of a membraneSynapse consists of axon terminal synaptic cleft and postsynaptic terminalLocal potentialElectrical potential on a specific part of a neuronoChanges in response to events within neuron and with communication from other neuronsoChanges as ions charge particles move in and out of neuron through ion channelsIon channelsPores in a neuronal membrane that allow the passage of ionsInfluence on local potentials from other neurons occurs as EPSP or IPSPExcitatory postsynaptic potential EPSPStimulus that depolarizes a local potentialInhibitory postsynaptic potential IPSPStimulus that hyperpolarizes a local potentialStudy local potential changes using electrophysiological proceduresBoxElectrophysiology and MicrodialysisElectrophysiology uses electrodes to measure potentials on neuronal membranesMacroelectrodes record activity of thousands of neurons within a structureoCan be used as stimulator to activate thousands of neurons within structureMicroelectrodes records the activity of only a few or single neuronsoIntracellular recordinguse of a microelectrode to measure potentials within a single neuron used to measure action potentialsallows neurons firing rate to be calculatedUsed to assess activity of neurons but cannot determine amount of neurotransmitter released from neuron MicrodialysisProcedure used to sample neurochemicals within a brain structure oProbes have semipermeable membrane which allows some of surrounding CSF to pass throughoCollected CSF analyzed for levels of certain chemicals neurotransmittersoProbe size limits neurotransmitter detection to entire structure rather than specific neuronoIncreases in neurotransmission must be large enough to cause neurotransmitters to cause significant overflow from synapses
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