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Chapter 8

PSYC62 - Chapter 8.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 8AlcoholAlcoholThe Most Commonly Used Depressant SubstanceEthyl alcoholAn alcohol that functions as a CNS depressantIsopropyl alcohol or isopropanolrubbing alcohol is not safe to drinkMethyl alcoholmethanol is industrial solvent used in products antifreeze and acts as toxin for optic nerves causes blindness if consumedndBeverage alcohol is widely consumed across world 2 to caffeineWHO2 bill people a year consume alcoholic beverages and 76 mill have alcohol use disorderHighest alcohol consumption occur in Europe Russia North America South America AustraliaLowest alcohol consumption in Middle EastSubstance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SAMHSAmore than half of US individuals 12 and older consumed alcohol with last 30 dayso1217 year olds represent 15 of alcohol consumerso7 reported heavy drinking and 18 had alcohol use disorderAlcohol Production Through Fermentation and DistillationBeer wine spirits are primary sources of beverage alcoholEnergy drinks vinegar and liquid medications contain some alcoholPercentage alcoholNumber of grams of alcohol found in 100 mL of solutionProof of alcoholNumerical value that is double the percentage of alcoholRecreational alcoholic beverages vary inalcohol content depending on fermentation method or distillation methodFermentationAlcohol production using yeast cells and some type of starch such as grains or fruitoYeast interacts with sugars from starches creating alcoholoThe longer yeasts metabolize sugars greaterof alcohol producedoUpper limit using this method is 15higher alcoholkills yeast cellsfermentation endsBeers and wines contain less than 15 alcoholBeer is made by exposing yeast cells to starch malted barley wheat riceoBrewers add other ingredients to promote further fermentation and provide flavouringoMost made from barley and hops and contain 5 alcoholWine is made from fermented fruit grapes along with acids enzymes nutrientsoStrawberries and cherriesfruit winesoGenerally contain 1215 alcoholDistilled alcoholic beverages spiritsAlcoholic beverages produced through distillation have a higher alcohol content than beer and wineoSeparates alcohol from a fermented mixtureoHeat fermented mixture until it exceeds alcohols boiling pointalcohol evaporatesalcohol vapours routed through tubes into cooler compartment where alcohol returns to liquid formhighly concentrated alcoholic solutionoLiquors and spirits 20 alcoholoDifferent flavours depend on starch used in fermentation filtration methods used to purify alcohol collected during distillation and method of storageOne of purest distilled spirits is grainbased alcoholEverclearoHighly filtered contains high concentration of alcohol with few other chemicals 7595 alcoholVodkas consist of highly filtered distilled spirit based on grains or other starch sourceso5095 alcoholBrandy whiskey rum contain 4060 alcohol varying in bitterness and flavor
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