Textbook Notes (362,928)
Canada (158,105)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)

Ch6 - Learning

13 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

6 LearningTuesday April 08 2014543 PM How did the behavioural study of learning developLearningAn enduring change in behaviour resulting from experienceIts not necessarily going to last a lifetimeThere are two different types of conditioning practices classical and operantSeems basic but its fundamental to everything that we do and how we function in our world not just for us but for everything thats out thereShapes many aspects of daily lifeThe essence of learning is understanding how events are related learning associationthRise of learning theory in early 20 century due partly to the dissatisfaction among some psychologists with the widespread use of introspectionFreudian ideas were at the heart of psychological theorizingJohn B Watson scorned any psychological enterprise that focused on things that could not be observed directlyObservable behaviour was the only valid indicator of psychological activityFounded behaviourismBased on John Lockes idea of tabula rasaEnvironment and its associated effects on animals were the sole determinants of learningPavlovRussian who won a Nobel Prize in 1904 for his work on the digestive systemInterested in the salivary reflexCreated an apparatus that collected saliva from dogs so that he could measure differences in salivary output when he placed various types of food into a dogs mouth One day he realized that the dogs in the laboratory were salivating before they tasted the foodUnlike inborn reflexes salivation at the sight of a person or of a bowl is not automatic and therefore must have been acquired through experiencePavlovs ExperimentsA neutral stimulus unrelated to the salivary reflex is presented along with a stimulus that reliably produces the reflexThis pairing a conditioning trial is repeated a number of timesOn critical trials the neutral stimulus is presented alone and the reflex is measuredUnder these conditions the sound of the metronome on its own produced salivationClassicalPavlovian conditioningA type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response Unconditioned Response URA response that does not have to be learned such as a reflexUnconditioned Stimulus USa stimulus that elicits a response such as a reflex without any prior learningConditioned Stimulus CSa stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken placeConditioned Response CRa response to a conditioned stimulus that has been learnedAcquisition extinction and spontaneous recoveryPavlov was greatly influenced by DarwinConditioning is the basis for how animals learn to adapt to their environmentsBy learning to predict what objects bring pleasure or pain animals acquire new adaptive behaviours AcquisitionThe gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli Critical element in the acquisition of a learned associations that the stimuli occur together in time a bond referred to as contiguityThe strongest conditioning actually occurs when there is a very brief delay between the CS and the USExtinctionA process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulusThe conditioned response is extinguished when the conditioned stimulus no longer predicts the unconditioned stimulusEven extinction is a learning process because they learn that the CS doesnt lead to what they thought it was going to lead to so the CR changesSpontaneous recoveryA process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulusEven a single pairing of the CS with the US will reestablish the CR which will then again diminish if the CSUS pairings do not continueExtinction inhibits the associative bond but does not eliminate itGeneralization discrimination and second order conditioningStimulus generalizationOccurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned responseAdaptive because in nature the CS is seldom experienced repeatedly in an identical fashion
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.