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Chapter

Ch9 - Motivation and Emotion
Ch9 - Motivation and Emotion
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School
University of Toronto St. George
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Semester
Winter

Description
9 Motivation and EmotionMarch 15 2014535 PMElliotsufferedimpairmentsinmotivationandemotionEmotionsareaprimarysourceofmotivationOurdecisionsandjudgmentareaffectedbyhowwefeelHowdoesmotivationactivatedirectandsustainbehaviourMotivationthefactorsthatenergizedirectorsustainbehaviourfocusesonwhatproducesbehaviourMotivationalstatesareenergizingdirectivehelppplpersistintheirbehaviouruntiltheirgoalsareachievedandmotivesdifferinstrengthdependingoninternalandexternalfactorsMultiplefactorsmotivatebehaviourNeedastateofbiologicalorsocialdeficiencyleadtogoaldirectedbehavioursNeedhierarchyMaslowsarrangementofneedsinwhichbasicsurvivalneedsmustbemetbeforehigherneedsaresatisfiedexampleofhumanisticpsychologyviewingpplasstrivingtowardpersonalfulfillmentHumansareuniquebcwearetheonlyanimalsthatcontinuallytrytoimproveourselvesSelfactualizationoccurswhenpersonaldreamsandaspirationsareachievedpersonislivingtotheirfullpotentialandistrulyhappyDrivesandincentivesNeedscreatearousalwhichmotivatesbehaviourArousalphysiologicalactivationlikeincreasedbrainactivityautonomicresponsessweatingmuscletensionDrivesphysiologicalstatesthatmotivateustosatisfyourneedsbasicdrivesthirsthungerhelpmaintainequilibriumHomeostasistendencyforbodilyfunctionstomaintainequilibriumWhenananimalisdeprivedofsomeneedadriveincreasesinproportiontotheamountofdeprivationDrivestatecreatesarousalwhichencouragesyoutodosomethingHabitwhenabehaviourconsistentlyreducesadriveIncentivesexternalobjectsgoalsratherthaninternaldrivesthatmotivatebehaviourforcesoutsideourconsciousawarenesscanprovideincentivesArousalandperformanceYerkesDodsonlawperformanceincreaseswitharousaltoanoptimalpointthendecreaseswithincreasingarousalToolittlearousalleadstoboredomtoomuchisoverwhelmingPleasureFreudproposedthatdrivesaresatisfiedaccordingtothepleasureprinciplewhichdrivesppltoseekpleasureandavoidpainHedonismhumansdesireforpleasantnessBehavioursthatareassociatedwithpleasureoftenpromotesurvivalandreproductionSomebehavioursaremotivatedfortheirownsakeExtrinsicmotivationmotivationtoperformanactivitybcoftheexternalgoalstowardwhichthatactivityisdirectedIntrinsicmotivationmotivationtoperformanactivitybcofthevalueorpleasureassociatedwiththatactivityratherthanforanapparentexternalgoalSomeintrinsicallymotivatedactivitiessatisfyournaturalcuriosityPlayfulexplorationischaracteristicofallmammalsithelpsuslearnaboutobjectsinanenvironmentCreativitythetendencytogenerateideasthatmaybeusefulinsolvingproblemsRewardingintrinsicmotivesExtrinsicrewardscanundermineintrinsicmotivationChildrenmorelikelytoplaywithmarkerifoutofpureenjoymentintrinsicrewardNOTextrinsicrewardSelfdeterminationtheoryandselfperceptiontheorySelfdeterminationtheorypplaremotivatedtosatisfyneedsforcompetencerelatednesstoothersandautonomysenseofpersonalcontrolExtrinsicrewardsmayreduceintrinsicvaluebcunderminessenseofdoingsomethingforyourselfbeingincontroltherewardhasreplacedthegoalofpurepleasureSelfperceptiontheorypplseldomareawareoftheirspecificmotivesandinsteaddrawinferencesabouttheirmotivationsaccordingtowhatseemstomakethemostsenseWhenpplcannotcomeupwithobviousexternalexplanationsfortheirbehaviourstheyconcludetheysimplylikethebehaviourwotherewardtheyhavenoreasontoengageinthebehaviourPeoplesetgoalstoachieveGoaladesiredoutcomePplareespeciallymotivatedtoachievepersonalgoalsSelfregulationprocessbywhichpplaltertheirbehaviourtoattainpersonalgoalsChallengingnotoverwhelmingspecificgoalsarebestChallenginggoalsencourageeffortwhiletooeasyhardgoalsunderminemotivationandleadtofailureDividinggoalsintostepsishelpfulSelfefficacyandachievementmotivationPplspersonalexpectationsforsuccessplayimptroleinmotivationSelfefficacytheexpectancythatyoureffortswillleadtosuccessPplwhighselfefficacysetchallenginggoalsthatoftenleadtosuccessAchievementmotivedesiretodowellrelativetostandardsofexcellence
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