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PSY100H1 (1,821)
Chapter 12

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Le Boutillier, Janelle

Chapter 12PSYB64 Chapter 12 Learning and Memory LearningThree categories of behaviors o Reflexes o Instincts o LearningReflexes involuntary responses to stimuliProduced by prewired neural connections or reflex arcsAdvantage of producing rapid reliable responses but their inflexibility can be a disadvantage when the environment changesInstincts A stereotyped pattern of behavior elicited by particular environmental stimuliAre automatic but resulting behaviors are more complexInvolve mating or parenting behavior o Male trying to attract a femaleInstinctive behaviors are consistent enough throughout life but can be modified by experienceLearning A relatively permanent change in behavior or the capacity for behavior due to experienceHuman adaptability to live in different environments comes from our human capacity for learned behaviorBehavior that changes as a result of experience is only considered learned o Behavior that changes due to maturation or growth does not countFatigue boredom illness and mood influence behavior but in temporary mannersTypes of LearningAssociative learning occurs when an organism forms a connection between two features of its environment o Classical conditioning allows organism to learn about signal that predict important eventsNonassociatve learning A type of learning that involves a change in the magnitude of responses to stimuli rather than the formation of connections between elements or events o Includes habituation and sensitizationHabituation and SensitizationHabituation occurs when an organism reduces its response to unchanging harmless stimuli getting used to an environment sounds scents etcSensitization occurs when repeated exposure to a strong stimulus increases responses to other environmental stimuli
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