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Chapter 15

Chapter 15.pdf

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Le Boutillier, Janelle

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Chapter 15 Neurological Disorders Brain DamageSoccer players perform worse on tests for attention memory and planning compared to swimmers and track athletes o Sortland and Tysvaer 1989 using CT found that 13 of former Norwegian national soccer members had cerebral atrophyo Most likely the source of injury is from heading the ballo It is reported that the greatest cognitive deficits occurred among players who headed the ball frequently Brain is protected by skull bonesmeninges cerebrospinal fluid CSF and bloodbrain barrier Damage can occur due to interruptions in the blood supply and head injuriesStrokeCells in nervous system NS rely on oxygen which is supplied by rich network of blood vessels o Circulation of blood to neural tissue can be rupturedblocked and that can cause serious damage to brainStroketype of brain damage caused by an interruption of blood supply to the brain by bleeding or blockage of blood vesselo Risk factors of strokeage hypertension smoking diabetes high cholesterol obesity alcohol use cocaine amphetamines heroin and other drugs o Atherosclerosis also increases risk of strokewhen arteries are narrowedhardenedCerebral hemorrhage Bleeding in the brain Condition caused by bleeding in the braino Generally results from hypertension high blood pressure or structural defects in arteries serving brain o Sometimes occur due to rupture ofaneurysms balloonlike bulge in walls of arteries o Can occur due to blood diseases such as leukemia or exposure to toxic chemicalso Usually fatal because of brain damage produced by blocking blood supply to neurons and flooding areas of brain with salty blood that dehydrates and kills nearby neuronsIschemia low oxygen levelBlockage of blood vessels result in ischemia It is condition where inadequate blood flow results in insufficient quantities of oxygen being delivered to tissue o Cases of Ischemia account for 80 of all strokeso Can result in neural tissue death in an areacalled infarctcan causes changes in consciousness sensation ability to move depends on their size and location o Transient ischemic attacks TIAsproduces brief less than 24 hours episode of stroke symptoms that doesnt cause permanent damage They are strong predictors of subsequent strokesWhen an area of the brain is deprived of oxygen for a sufficient amount of time cells begin to dieThe area of dead tissue is referred to as an infarctMaterial causing blockage of a blood vessel can be classified as either a thrombosis or an embolism Thrombosis A plug of blood or other material thatblocks a blood vessel without from its point of originEmbolismA plug that passes into smaller and smaller blood vessels until it forms a blockage o Blockage in small blood vessels are less damaging than in large arteries serving the brain but multiple small strokes can cause significant damageCells in middle layers of cortex and hippocampus are most vulnerable to ischemia It isnt only lack of oxygen that caused cell dead there are other processes involved in brain damage caused by ischemiaExcitotoxicity coined by John Olney to describe ability of excess glutamate to kill neurons o Now believe that cell death after a stroke is caused by excess glutamate activity triggered by lack of oxygen o Excess glutamate in neuron initiates cascade of eventsleading to cell death o In response to unusual amounts of glutamate abnormal calcium activity in the cell stimulates 4 executioner enzymes that damage cells energy stores membranes cytostructure and DNA
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