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psy100 7

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Dan Dolderman

Psychology Chapter 7 - Memory MEMORY H.M. - unable to form long-term memories. Able to remember everything before the surgery. Can learn motor tasks but be unaware of it. Modal Memory Model - (Standard) Sensory input -> sensory memory -> Short-term memory -> Long-term memory (unattended info is lost) (unrehearsed info is lost) (some info lost over t) Sensory Memory - iconic memory and echoic memory. George Sperling experiment 3 flashing rows of letters for brief moments, brief periods of delay follow, and asking to recall. Only able to recall within 1/3 second, after which sensory-memory trace faded and was no longer accessible. - Iconic and echoic memories let us experience world as continuous stream rather than discrete sensations STM - (immediate memory) fleeting thoughts, feelings - Limited capacity, holds information in awareness for a brief period of time. - Computer analogy is RAM, constantly replaced by new info, lost if not saved - Holds info for 20 second limit. Disappears if not rehearsing it. (telephone #) - By 18 seconds of counting backwards, people have poor recall for consonants. Because of interference from previous items in STM Memory span and chunking - Limited to about 7 items (plus or minus 2, George Miller) called memory span. o Recent work says four units o Varies among individuals, some IQ tests use this as test of intelligence Psychology Chapter 7 - Memory - String of letters easier to remember when separated into meaningful words o Why? 1) memory span is limited to 7 items, but items can be letters, numbers, words, or even concepts 2) Chunking - breaking info into meaningful bits easier to remember. Chess players able to memorize scenarios. Efficiency of chunking depends on long-term memory system Working Memory STM is NOT a single storage system. It is an active processing unit deals with multiple types of information such as sounds, images and ideas. - 3-part active system called working memory(Alan Baddeley) - keeps info available for activities such as problem solving, reasoning, comprehension. e.g., HM can keep track of a conversation as long as hes actively involved in it. - 3 components: central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad. central executive the boss. interactions between subsystems and LTM, encodes info from sensory system and filters important info to be stored in LTM. Relies on two subcomponents: - phonological loop - encodes auditory information. inner voice. Active when you read, speak, or repeat words to yourself. Words are processed by sound not by meaning. Experiment that people tend to make errors with consonants that sound alike rather than look alike (G and T, rather than Q). - visuospatial sketchpad - processes visual info. Features and location. Psychology Chapter 7 - Memory Because separate systems, people with brain damage might have difficulty remembering spatial layouts but not words or vice versa. LTM - computer analogy: hard disk - human LTM is limitless LTM is different from STM in two ways: duration and capacity. Different systems or not? Evidence came from research at individual level (recall long lists of words) - ability to recall items on list depend on ORDER of presentation, those presented early or late better remembered than those in middle called serial position effect - Divided into two different effects - primacy effect - people remember items that were presented first because they rehearsed them more and they went into LTM - recency effect most recent, last items are still fresh in the STM. SO primacy effect due to LTM, recency effect due to STM. Experiment: when delay between presentation and recall task, interferes with recency effect, not primacy effect. HOWEVER recency effect not entirely STM. Lasts longer (remember last class) and by itself does NOT prove that STM and LTM are really different types of memory storage. BEST support for distinction of STM and LTM? Biological level of analysis in case studies such as H.M. - His STM and LTM are intact, but is unable to transfer new info from STM into LTM. Psychology Chapter 7 - Memory - Other case, poor STM but ok LTM. Normal flow of info was getting into LTM. So LTM can be dissociated from STM, but the two systems are highly interdependent. Example: to chunk info in STM, need to form meaningful connections based on LTM. What gets into long-term memory 1) Info enters permanent storage through rehearsal Distributed practice is much better than massed practice (cramming). Overlearning (rehearsing material you already know well) is recommended. Studying for shorter periods of time but spreading study sessions out over several days or weeks is most efficient way to learn. 2) Only meaningful information - info that can help us adapt to environment - can go into LTM. To benefit from experience. a. Evolutionary theory explains how we decide in advance what info will be useful. What are the different memory systems? Long-term memory is not a unitary system, its different systems encode and store different types of information in different ways. e.g., ability to ride a bicycle and recite a story. - In order to distinguish memory systems, important to know if reference being made is PROCESS or CONTENT of memory. - Most basic distinction is memories for which we consciously remember and use information and those for which occurs without conscious effort.
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