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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 study guide: The Brian and Consciousness

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

CHAPTER FOUR: THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS -epilepsy is the debilitating (devastating) af lfiction in which seizures (u n control eld storms of electrical activity) begin in some part of the brain and spread throughout much of it, often causing violent life- threatening convulsions of the entire body -Parkinsons disease is when specific parts of the brain control specific mental and physical capabilities -have difficulty learning tasks that require repetition because of damage to their basal ganglia, which is crucial for planning and producing movement -mental activities and behaviours are produced by biological processes within the brain, such as the action of nerve cells and associated with chemical reactions -the coordinated action of a number of different brain regions contributes not only to consciousness, but also to variations in conscious experience, from being highly aware of our surroundings to being fast asle e p and dreaming -brain is always active, functioning at every moment to ke e p us alive as it processes information from the external world and in doing so, creating our mental world -the brain wasnt always recognized as the home of the mind -ie. Egyptians viewed the hear as more important -they elaborately embalmed (preserved) the hearts of their deceased but the brains they simply threw away -the heart was to be weighted in the afterlife to determine the deceaseds fate -in early 19thcentury, Franz Gal l and Johan n Spurzheim proposed their theory of phrenology -phrenology is the practice of as ses sing personality traits and mental abilities by measuring bumps on the human skull -based on the idea that the brain operates on a principle of functional localization -one of its most vigorous critics was Pier re Flourens, a French scientist -believed that the brain functions as a single unit, with al parts working together -conducted experiments in the 18 2 s 0 on birds and rodents in which he removed brain regions and observed the effects on behaviour -Karl Lashley used a similar method to identify the place sin the brain where learning occurred -conceded that specific brain regions were involved in motor control and sensory experiences -believe that all parts of the cortex contributed equally to mental abilities (ie. Problem solving and memory, a concept called equipotentiality) -his theory has be en discredited now -the brain consists of a patchwork of high specialized areas -evidence came from the work of French scientist Paul Broca -performed an autopsy on a man who was a patient that lost the ability to say anything other than the word tan, but could still understand language -Broca found substantial damage to the front left side caused by a large lesion -observation led him to conclude that this particular region was important for speech -the frontal region to become known as Brocas area -since the invention of brain imaging methods in late 1980s, there has been various experiments and researches www.notesolution.com
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