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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 11 Human Development What shapes a child Development starts in the wombMany factors in prenatal environment nuturition and hormones can affect developmentExposure to teratogens drugs alcohol viruses can result in death deformity or mental disorders Brain development promotes learningSynaptic pruning process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved and those that are not are lostBrains physical development continues through growth of neuronsCritical periods biologically determined time periods for the development of specific skillsSensitive periods biologically determined time periods when specific skills develop most easily Attachment promotes survivalAttachment strong intimate emotional connection between people that persists over time and across circumstances feeling of safety and security o Attachment is adaptiveIn the past mother thought as source of food source of libidinal pleasure provider of foodHarlows experiment infant monkeys prefer and form attachment to surrogate mother that provides warmth and comfort over a wire surrogate mother that provides milkSecure attachment attachment style for majority of the infants who are readily comforted when their caregiver returns after a brief separationAvoidant attachment infant ignore their caregiver when she returns after a brief separationAnxiousambivalent attachment infant becomes extremely upset when there caregiver leaves but rejects her when she returnsDisorganized attachment infants give mixed responses when their caregiver leaves and then returns from a short absenceOxytocin social acceptance and bonding sexual gratification o Infant sucking triggers release of oxytocin stimulates biological processes then infant can nurseHow do children learn about their worldsPerception introduces the worldPreferential looking technique infant looks longer at one of the things then researcher knows the infant can distinguish between two and find one more interestingOrienting reflex human tendency to pay more attention to new stimuli
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