Textbook Notes (362,768)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10: Emotions and Health

20 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 10: Emotions and Health Emotions are a fundamental part of the human experience. They warn of danger, create bonds between people, and bring joy to life. Emotions refer to fe e lings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological proces s es, and cognitive beliefs. Moods are diffuse and long-lasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupt thought and behaviour. Many times people are in a good or bad mood have no idea why they feel the way they do. Stress is defined as a pattern of behavioural and physiological responses to events that match or exceed an organisms abilities. Health psychology is the field of psychological science concerned with the events that affect physical well-being. How are emotions adaptive? Negative and positive experiences guide behaviour that increases the probability of surviving and reproducing. Emotions are adaptive because they prepare and guide behaviours, such as running when you encounter dangerous animals. Emotions provide information about the importance of stimuli to personal goals and then prepare people for actions aimed at helping achieve those goals. Facial expressions provide many clues about whether our behaviour is pleasing to others or whether it is likely to cause them to reject, attack, or cheat us. Facial expressions communicate emotion In 1872, Darwin wrote Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals, where he argues that expressive characteristics were adaptive in all forms of life. Emotional expressions are powerful nonverbal communications. Humans can communicate emotions quite well without verbal language. Because infants cannot talk, they must communicate their needs largely through nonverbal action and emotional expressions. www.notesolution.com At birth, and infant can is capable of expressing joy, interest, disgust, and pain. By two months, they can express anger and sadness, by six months they can express fear. In the absence of verbal expression, nonverbal displays of emotions signal inner states, moods, and needs. The lower half of the face may be more important that the upper half of the face in communicating emotion. The display of emotions alters behaviours in observers; people tend to avoid those who look angry and approach those who look happy or in need of comfort. Emotions provide information to others as to how people are feeling and, in addition, can prompt them to respond in accordance with others wants and needs. Facial Expressions across Cultures Darwin argues that the face in n ately com m u nicates emotion to others and that these communications are understandable by all people, regardless of culture. Some facial expres sions are u niversal, and therefore likely to be biological ly based. Display Rules and Gender Display rules govern how and when emotions are exhibited. There are gender differences in display rules that guide emotional expression, particularly for smiling and crying. It is generally believed that women more readily, frequently, easily, and intensely display emotions; except for emotions related to dominance. The emotions most closely associated with women are those related to care giving, nurturance and interpersonal relationships, whereas emotions associated with men are related to competitiveness, dominance, and defensiveness. Although women are more likely to display emotion does not mean that they actually experience emotions more intensely. Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions Peoples moods can alter ongoing mental processes. When people are in good moods they tend to make decisions more quickly and efficiently. Positive moods also facilitate creative, elaborate responses to challenging problems and motivate persistence. Increased dopamine levels mediate the effects of positive affect on cognitive tasks. Heightened activation of dopamine receptors in brain areas is crucial for the advantageous cognitive effects of positive affect. www.notesolution.com
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.