Textbook Notes (368,780)
Canada (162,164)
Psychology (2,981)
PSY100H1 (1,831)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 study guide: Personality

20 Pages
Unlock Document

Michael Inzlicht

CHAPTER TWELVE: PERSONALITY -we are constantly trying to figure people out, so that we can understand why they behave the way they do, so we can predict their future behaviour -an important question for researchers who study personality is the extent to which personality changes throughout a persons life -shy people, spend a great deal of time worrying about what others think of them -most people feel shy on some occasions, but some people feel shy all the time that it interferes with making friends or achieving their goals -understanding personality may be among the oldest quests in psychology -Personality refers to an individuals characteristics, emotional responses, thoughts and behaviours that are relatively stable over time and across circumstance -personality psychologists study the basic processes that influence the development of personality on a number of different levels of analysis -influence of culture, learning, biology, cognitive factors -those who study personatliy are most interested in understanding whole persons -try to understand what makes each person unique -people differ greatly in many ways -some are hostile, loving, withdrawn -Personality Trait is a characteristic, a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and acros s circumstances How have Scientists Studied Personality? -Dan McAdams (a leading personality researcher) has posed the interesting question: What must we know to know a person well? -ways of answering this question varies greatly, depending on their overal l theoretical ap proach -some emphasize culture, patterns of reinforcement, or mental and unconscious processes -to really understand people is to understand everything about them -from their biological make-ups to their early childhood experiences to the way they think to the cultures in which they were raised -all these factors work together to shape a person in a unique way -Gordon Allport (published the first major textbo o k on personality) gave the best working definition of personality -DEF: the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and thought -the definition includes many of concepts most important to a contemporary understanding of personality -the notion of organization indicates that personality is not just a list of traits but a coherent whole -this organized whole is dynamic -it is goal seeking, sensitive to context and adaptive to the environment -by emphasizing psychophysical systems, Allport highlights the psychological nature of personality while clearly recognizing that personality arises from basic biological processes -Allports definition stresses that personality causes people to think, behave and feel in relatively consistent ways over time. www.notesolution.com-psychological researchers use diverse approaches to explore different aspects of personality Psychodynamic Theories Emphasize Unconscious and Dynamic Processes -Sigmund Freud, developed one of the most influential theories of human personality -focused on the individual level of analysis -developed many of his ideas about personality by observing people he was treating for various psychological disturbances -such as patients who experienced paralysis without any apparent physical cause -the central premise of Freuds Psychodynamic Theory of personality is that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behaviour -referred to these psychic forces as instincts, defining them as mental representations arising out of biological or physical need -proposed that people have a life instinct that is satisfied by fol lowing the pleasure principle, which directs people to seek pleasure and avoid pain -Instincts can be viewed as wishes or desires to satisfy libidinal urges for pleasure -Libido is the energy that drives the pleasure principle -Freud used this term to refer more generally to the energy that promotes pleasure seeking -these psychological forces can be in conflict, which was what Freud viewed as the essential cause of mental il lnes s A Topographical Model of Mind -Freud believed that most of the conflict betwe en various psychological forces oc cur red below the level of conscious awareness -proposed that the structure of the mind, the topography as it were, was divided into 3 different zones of mental awareness -at the conscious level, people are aware of their thoughts -the preconscious level consists of content that is not currently in awareness but could be brought to awareness -roughly analogous to long-term memory -the unconscious contains material that the mind cannot easily retrieve -believed that much of human behaviour was influenced by unconscious processes -Freud said that the unconscious mind contains wishes, desires, and motives that are associated with conflict, anxiety or pain and are therefore not accessible to protect the person from distress. -however, this information can leak into consciousness, such as occurs during a Freudian slip, in which a person accidentally reveals a hidden motive -ie. Someone introducing themselves to someone attractive by saying Excuse me, I dont think weve been properly seduced Development of Sexual Instincts -Freud believed that early childho od experiences had a major impact on the development of personality -believed that children went through developmental stages that corresponded to their pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges www.notesolution.com
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.