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Chapter 13

Chapter 13: Disorders of the Mind and Body

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 13 Disorders of the Mind and Body -psychopathology a disorder of the mind -mental illness might be the result of conflicts between thought and emotion How are Mental Disorders Conceptualized and Classified? Mental Disorders are Classified into Categories -Emil Kraepelin; first to propose a classification system for mental disorders. -identified mental disorders based on groups of symptoms that occurred together -Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders -multiaxial system is based on the growing realization that mental health is affected by a variety of factors. -diagnosing a patient on all five axes provides a more complete picture of the person. -See table for the five levels of AXIS Mental Disorders Must Be Assessed before Diagnosis -the process of examining a persons mental functions and psychological health is known as assessment. -the goal of assessment is to make a diagnosis so that appropriate treatment can be provided for the specific disorder. -the course and probable outcome, or prognosis, can help the patient and family understand what the future might bring. -Mental Status Exam provides a snapshot of their psychological functioning. -the exam involves evaluating the person for things such as personal groming, ability to make eye contact, tremors or twitches, mood, speech, though content, and memory. -offers insights into whether a person has a mental disorder. -most symptoms of psychological problems develop over fairly long periods of time -this clinical interview is the most common method of psychological assessment Structured vs. Unstructured Interviews: -Although this type of interview is flexible it is highly idiosyncratic no two unstructured interviews are likely to elicit identical information. -structured interviews use standardized questions that are asked in the same order each time -the most commonly used structured interview is known as Structured clinical Interview for DSM, which makes diagnoses according to DSM criteria. -structured interviews facilitate assessment as well as research and treatment. Behavioural Assessments: -nueropyschological testing. -in this method, the client is asked to perform certain actions, such as copying a picture, drawing a design from memory, sorting cards that show various stimuli into categories bsed on size, shape or color, placing blocks into slots on a board while blindfolded, tapping fingers rapidly and so forth. Psychological Testing: -examples of these types of tests are like the assessment of personality. -the most widely used questionnaire for psychological assessment is the Minnesota multiphasic Personality inventory. www.notesolution.com-the latest version consists of 567 truefalse items that assess emotions, thoughts, and behaviours. -ten clinical scales and the way a person scores on these scales produces a particular profile that indicates whether he or she may have a particular mental disorder. -a common problem with all self-report assessments, is that people do not necessarily answer honestly -to counter these response biases, the MMPI contains validity scales that measure the probability that people are being less than truthful -Other validity scales examine whether the text taker answers similar questions in the same manner each time, endorses items that are extremely rare, and endorses and especially large number of negative items. -MMPI is has been criticized because it may not be appropriate for use in other countries or with groups such as the poor, elderly, or racial minorities. -tests such as the MMPI are widely used in psychological assessment, but they are seldom the sole source of information. Mental Disorders Have Many Causes Psychological Factors: -Freud believed that mental disorders were due to mostly unconscious conflicts, often sexual in nature that dated back to childhood. -consistent with this perspective, many disorders in the first edtion of the DSM were described as reactions to environmental conditions or as involving various defense mechanisms. -Psychological factors play an important role in the manifestation and treatment of mental disorders. -at the social level of analysis, thoughts, and emotions are shaped by the environment and can profoundly influence behaviour, including abnormal behaviour. -The Family Systems model is based on the idea that the behaviour of an individual must be considered within a social context, in particular the family. -the sociocultural model views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures. -schizophrenia, are more common among the lower socioeconomic classes, such as anorexia nervosa are more common among the middle and upper classes. -differences in lifestyles, expectations, and opportunities among the classes of society. -that it is possible that there are cultural biases in the willingness to ascribe disorders to different social classes. Cognitive Behavioral Factors -at the level of the individual, the central principle of the cognitive behavioural approach is that abnormal behaviour is learned. -the psychoanalytic approach focuses on unconscious internal factors, the behavioral approach is based on observable variables. -proponents of strict behaviorism argue that mental disorders are the result of classical and operant conditioning -the revised cognitive behavioral perspective includes the idea that thoughts and beliefs should be considered as another type of behavior that can be tudied empirically. -thoughts can become distorted and produce maladaptive behaviours and emotions. www.notesolution.com
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