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PSY100H1 (1,804)
Chapter 3


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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

PSY100 CH3 Genetic and Biological Foundations Key Terms chromosomes Structures within the cell body that are made up of genes. gene The unit of heredity that determines a particular characteristic in an organism. dominant gene A gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is present. recessive gene A gene that is expressed only when it is matched with a similar gene from the other parent. genotype The genetic constitution determined at the moment of conception. phenotype Observable physical characteristics that result from both genetic and environmental inuences. monozygotic twins Twin siblings who result from one zygote splitting in two, and therefore share the same genes (i.e., identical twins). dizygotic twins Twin siblings who result from two separately fertilized eggs (i.e., fraternal twins). heritability A statistical estimate of the fraction of observed measure of the overall amount of difference among people in a population that is caused by differences in heredity. neuron The basic unit of the nervous system that operates through electrical impulses, which communicate with other neurons through chemical signals. Neurons receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system. dendrites Branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons. cell body In the neuron, where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and processed. axon A long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons. terminal buttons Small nodules at the ends of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron to an area called the synapse. synapse The site for chemical communication between neurons. sensory neurons One of the three types of neurons, these afferent neurons detect information from the physical world and pass that information along to the brain. www.notesolution.com
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