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Chapter Defiinitions

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Michael Inzlicht

Psychology Definitions: Psychological Science: The study of mind, brain, and behavior. Evolutionary Theory: In psychological science, a theory that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive value of behavior, and mental activity throughout the entire history of a species. Natural Selection: Darwins theory that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environment have a selective advantage over those who do not. Adaptations: In evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future generations. Culture: The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment, and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next. Nature-nurture debate: The arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture. Mind-body Problem: A fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind and body are separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical brain. Dualism: The philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical body. Introspection: A systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts. Structuralism: An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down in its basic underlying components or elements. Stream of consciousness: A phrase coined by William James to describe ones continuous series of ever-changing thoughts. Functionalism: An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior. Gestalt Theory: A theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements. Unconscious: A term that identifies mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness. Psychoanalysis: A method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed. Behaviorism: A psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behavior. www.notesolution.com
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