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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 1 The Evolution of PsychologyFrom Speculation to Science How Psychology DevelopedA New Science Is Born The Contributions of Wundt and HallWilhelm WundtGerman professor founder of psychology argued to make psychology an independent discipline rather than a stepchild of physiology or philosophy established the first formal laboratory for research in psych in 1879 ie psychs date of birth Primary focus was consciousness the awareness of immediate experience therefore psych became the scientific study of conscious experience focused on the mind and mental processes G Stanley Hall briefly studied with Wundt important in the rapid growth of psych in Americaestablished Americas first research laboratory launched Americas first psych journal driving force in establishing the American Psychological Association APA The Battle of the Schools Begins Structuralism versus FunctionalismEdward Titchener created structuralismtask of psychology is to analyze consciousness fundamental components like sensations feelings images into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are relatedmost work concerned sensationperception in vision hearing touchdepended on introspectioncareful systematic selfobservation of ones own conscious experience make the person being studied more objectiveawareWilliam James created functionalismpsychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure consciousness is an important characteristic in humans so we should investigate the functions rather than the structure of consciousnessJames argued that the consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thoughts called the stream of consciousnessstructuralists analyzed the consciousness into its elements looking at static points in the flowStructuralists gravitated to the lab functionalists were more interested in how people adapt to their behaviour to the demands of the real world around themFunctionalism was followed more fostered the development of two parts of modern psychology behaviourism and applied psychologyWatson Alters Psychologys Course as Behaviourism Makes its DebutJohn B Watson founded behaviourisma theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviourproposed psychologists focus exclusively on behaviours that could be observed directly not on the consciousness Watson sided with nurture in the debatedebate is whether behaviour is determined mainly by genetic inheritance nature or by environment and experience nurture To behaviourists psychology was to relate observable behaviour responses to observable events in the environment stimulusany detectable input from the environmenttherefore the behavioural approach is referred to as stimulusresponse SR psychologyheavily involved in the study of simple responses made by laboratory animals
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