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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Chapter 7Human MemoryEncodingforming a memory code ex entering data through a keyboardStoragemaintaining encoded info in memory over time ex saving data in file on hard disk Retrievalrecovering info from memory stores ex calling up file displaying data on monitor Encoding Getting Information into Memory The Role of AttentionAttentioninvolves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or eventsoften linked to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awarenessDebate over where the filter is located in the informationprocessing systemstudies have found ample evidence for both early selection and late selection views as well as for intermediate selection attention filter may be flexible rather than fixed People have difficulty if they try to focus their attention on two or more inputs simultaneouslywhen people are forced to divide their attention between memory encoding and some other task large reductions in memory performance are seenLevels of ProcessingIncoming info can be processed at different levels Craik and Lockhart propose people engage in three progressively deeper levels of processing structural phonemic and semantic encoding Structural encoding relatively shallow processing emphasizes physical structure of the stimulusex if words are flashed on a screen it registers things like how theyre printed ex capitals Phonemic encoding further analyzing will result in this level emphasizes what a word sounds likeinvolves naming or saying perhaps silently the wordsSemantic encoding emphasizes the meaning of verbal input it involves thinking about the objects and actions the words represent Levelsofprocessing theorydeeper levels of processing result in longerlasting memory codesKey hypothesis by Craik and Tulving was that retention of the stimulus words would increase as subjects moved from structural to phonemic to semantic encoding Level of Type of Encoding Example of questions used to Processing elicit appropriate encoding Shallow Structural Encoding emphasizes the Is the word written in capital Processing physical structure of the stimulus letters Intermediate Phonemic Encoding emphasizes what Does the word rhyme with Processing a word sounds like weight Deep Semantic Encoding emphasizes the Would the word fit in He met a Depth of Processing Processingmeaning of verbal inputon the streetEnriching EncodingElaborationSemantic encoding can often be enhanced through a process called elaborationlinking a stimulus to other information at the time of encodingEx you read phobias are often caused by classical conditioning and you apply this to your own fear of spidersadditional associations created by elaboration usually help to remember infoOften consists of thinking of examples that illustrate an idea therefore additional examples led to better memory ex in an essay ideas with examples will be remembered betterVisual Memory Imagery the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered can also be used to enrich encodingeasier to form images of concrete objects than of abstract concepts Ex if you were asked to remember the word juggler you could readily form an image of someone juggling balls it would be harder to forming a suitable image for truth thoughDualcoding theorymemory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recallaccording to Paivio imagery provides a second kind of memory codeSelfReferent Encoding Making material personally meaningful can also enrich encodingex if you ride a bus regularly youre constantly hearing the driver call out the names of the stops you probably dont remember all but will remember the ones youve used your friends have used etc Selfreferent encodinginvolves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant appears to enhance recall by promoting additional elaboration and better organization of info Review of Key PointsThree key processes contribute to memory encoding storage and retrieval The nextinline effect illustrates that active encoding is crucial to memory Attention which facilitates encoding is inherently selective and has been compared to a filter The cocktail party phenomenon suggests input is screened late in mental processing Empirical evidence indicates people may have some flexibility in where they place their attention filter According to levelsofprocessing theory the kinds of memory codes people create depend on which aspects of a stimulus are emphasized Structural phonemic and semantic encoding emphasize the structure sound and meaning of words respectivelyDeeper processing results in better recall of information Structural phonemic and semantic encoding represent progressively deeper levels of processing Elaboration enriches encoding by linking a stimulus to other information such as examples of an idea The creation of visual images to represent words can enrich encoding Visual imagery may help by creating two memory codes rather than just one Encoding that emphasizes personal selfreference may be especially useful in facilitating retention
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