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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 11 Human Development across the Life Span Progress before Birth Prenatal DevelopmentThe Course of Prenatal Developmentfrom conception to birth 9 months Germinal StageGerminal stagefirst phase of prenatal development first two weeks after conception Begins when a zygote is created through fertilizationzygote becomes a microscopic mass of thmultiplying cells within 36 hours on the 7 day it begins to implant itself in the uterine wallPlacentaa structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mothers bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the motherbegins to form during implantation Embryonic StageEmbryonic stagesecond stage of prenatal development lasting from two weeks until the end of the second monthmost organs and such begin to form is now called an embryo Period of great vulnerability bc all basic physiological structures are being formedmost miscarriages occur most major structural birth defects due to problems that occur in this stageFetal Stage Fetal stagethird stage of prenatal development lasting from two months through birth Rapid body growth in the first two months of this stage as muscles and bones begin to formNow called a fetus capable of physical movements organs continue to grow and begin to function sex organs start to develop in the third monthSometime between 22 weeks and 26 weeks the fetus reaches the age of viabilitythe age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development Maternal NutritionDeveloping fetus needs a variety of essential nutrientssevere maternal malnutrition increases the risk of birth complications and neurological defects for newborns Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and diabetes in adulthoodMaternal Drug Use All recreational drugs can be harmful sedativesnarcoticscocaine being particularly dangerousrespiratory problems early death birth defects addiction cognitive and physical defectsFetal alcohol syndromea collection of congenital inborn problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancyproblems include small head heart defects hyperactivity mental retardation etcdeficits in IQ reaction time motor skills attention span etcSmoking increases the risk of miscarriages stillbirths prematurity and other birth complications Maternal Illness Fetus is largely defenceless against infections bc the immune system matures relatively late in the prenatal perioddiseases like measles cholera syphilis smallpox etc can be hazardousWomen can transmit AIDS and herpes herpes typically transmitted during birth when the baby comes into contact with the lesions can cause paralysis blindness brain damage etc AIDS transmission may occur prenatally through placenta during birth or breast feedingReview of Key PointsPrenatal development proceeds through the germinal embryonic and fetal stages as the zygote if differentiated into a human organism The embryonic stage is a period of great vulnerability as most physiological structures are being formed Maternal malnutrition during the prenatal period has been linked to birth complications and other subsequent problems Maternal drug use can be very dangerous although the risks depend on the drug used the dose and the phase of prenatal development Fetal alcohol syndrome is a collection of congenital problems from a mothers excessive alcohol use during pregnancy A variety of maternal illnesses can interfere with prenatal development Genital herpes and AIDS can be transmitted to offspring during the birth process Many problems can be avoided if expectant mothers have access to good health care The Wondrous Years of Childhood Exploring the World Motor DevelopmentMotor developmentprogression of muscular coordination required for physical activitiesinclude grasping and reaching sitting up crawling walking and runningBasic PrinciplesCephalocaudal trendheadtofoot direction of motor developmentchildren tend to gain control over the upper part of the body before the lower part crawling to walkingProximodistal trendcentreoutward direction of motor developmentgain control over the torso before their extremities reach for thing by twisting entire body to just extending armsTypically grow to roughly triple their birth weight in the first year while height increases by about 45go through growth spurts accompanied by restlessness and irritability Maturationdevelopment that reflects the gradual unfolding of ones genetic blueprintphysical changes that come with age also from infants experimentation and learning Understanding Developmental NormsDevelopmental normsindicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviours and skillsex say first word at 12 months start combining words into sentences at 24 months Average measures cant expect infants to progress exactly at the pace specified in the norms
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