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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 12Personality Theory Research and AssessmentThe Nature of PersonalityDefining Personality Consistency and DistinctivenessConsistency one who has an optimistic personality indicates that they have a fairly consistent tendency to behave in a cheerful hopeful enthusiastic wayDistinctiveness each person has traits that are seen in other people but each individual has his or her own distinctive set of personality traitsPersonality explains stability in a persons behaviour over timeacross situations consistency and behavioural differences among people reacting to the same situation distinctivenessPersonalityan individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioural traitsPersonality Traits Dispositions and DimensionsPersonality traita durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations adjectives used are moody impulsive dependable excitable etcCattellused factor analysis to reduce a huge list of personality traits to 16 factor analysiscorrelations among many variables analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variablesThe FiveFactor Model of Personality Traits Robert McCrae and Paul Costadeveloped the model maintain that most personality traits are derived from just five higherorder traits known as the Big Five 1 Extraversionoutgoing sociable upbeat friendly assertive gregarious positive emotionality2 Neuroticismanxious hostile selfconscious insecure vulnerable tend to overreact more in response to stress than others negative emotionality 3 Openness to experiencecuriosity flexibility vivid fantasy imaginativeness artistic sensitivity fosters liberalism key determinant of peoples political attitudes and ideology4 Agreeablenesssympathetic trusting cooperative modest those who score on the opposite end of this spectrum are suspicious antagonistic aggressive may have its roots in childhood temperament and appears to promote altruistic helping behaviour in social interactions 5 Conscientiousnessdiligent wellorganized dependable also referred to as constraint Review of Key Points The concept of personality explains the consistency in peoples behaviour over time and across situations while also explaining their distinctiveness Factor analysis can be used to identify higherorder traits from which specific traits are derived There is considerable debate as to how many trait dimensions are necessary to account for the variation in personality Nonetheless the fivefactor model has become the dominant conception of personality structure The Big Five personality traits are extraversion neuroticism openness to experience agreeableness and conscientiousness
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