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Chapter 2

Psychological Science Chapter 2

5 Pages

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Dan Dolderman

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CH 2 NotesScientific methodsystematic proceeds orderly steps that are carefully planned observing and measuring phenomena to answer questions about what happens when it happens what causes it and whyThe scientific method always includes theories hypotheses and research o Theory an explanation or a model of how something in the world works o Hypothesis a specific testable prediction about the outcome that would best support the theory o Research systematic and careful collection of data o Data objective information that provides a test of whether the hypothesis is likely to be supportedReplication repeating a study and getting the same or similar results to confirm findingsJean Piaget birth to adolescent stages of developmentSigmund Freud dream representationTorsten Wiesel and David HubelDifferent types of design descriptive correlational experimentalVariable anything that can be measured and that can varyOperational definitions identify and quantify variables so they can be measuredDescriptive studies o Observational studies o How data is collected o Observing and noting behaviour for objective analysis o Especially valuable in the early stages of research to see if the phenomenon even existsNaturalistic observation o Observer remains separated from and makes no attempt to change the situationParticipant observation o Researcher is involved in the situationLongitudinal studies o Changes that occur to the same people over a long timeCrosssectional studies o Comparing different groups to make inferences about bothObserver bias o Systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observers expectations o Cultural norms can affect both the participants actions and the way observers perceive those actions o Observer bias can even change the behaviour being observed o See observer bias mouse mazeExperimenter expectancy effect o Some aspect of our own behaviour are not under our conscious control o Its best if the person running the study if blind to the studys hypothesisCorrelational study o How variables are naturally related in the real world without any attempt by the researcher to alter them o Correlational studies are popular because they rely on naturally occurring relationships o Knowing the direction of the causeeffect relation between variables problem with this kind of studyDirectionality problems o A affects B or B affects A
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