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Chapter 3

Psy100h1 Textbook notes chapter3 part2

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University of Toronto St. George

CHAPTER 3Genetic and Biological FoundationsP87aautoreceptors monitor how much neurotransmitter has been released into synapsebwhen excess detected autoreceptors signal the neuron to stop releasing the neurotransmitterAll three methods regulate activity of neurotransmitters in synaptic cleft How do neurotransmitters NT influence emotion thought and behaviourAll neurotransmitters act to enhance or inhibit action potentials by depolarizing or hyperpolarizing postsynaptic cell membranes Many substances such as drugs and toxins can alter the action of neurotransmitters in several waysDrugs and toxins canalter how the NT is synthesizedraise or lower the amount of NT released from terminal buttonscan change the way the NT is deactivated in synaptic cleft by blocking reuptake or preventing enzyme deactivation odrugs that enhance action of a specific NT are agonistsodrugs that inhibit action of a specific NT are antagonistsNTs effects are not a property of the chemicals themselves but rather a function of the receptors to which they bind Same NT can be excitatory or inhibitory or produce radically different effects based on the properties of the receptor Four categories of NT acetylcholine monoamines amino acids and peptides Pg 98 tableAcetylcholine affects motor control and mental processesAcetylcholineAcetylcholine Achthe neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at the junction between nerves and muscles also involved in mental processes such as learning memory sleeping and dreamingbinds with receptors on muscle cells relax or contractAchskeletal muscles andheart musclesexcitesinhibitsACh antagonists cause temporary amnesiaoAlzheimers disease associated with diminished ACh functioning oToxics that mimic ACh can bind to receptors and cause temporary paralysisnicotineoexcites ACh receptors oincrease attention improve problem solving and facilitate memory oactivation of ACh neurons has affect on state of sleep associated with dreamsMonoamines are involved in affect arousal and motivation Monoamines a group of NT synthesized from a single amino acid that are involved in a variety of psychological activitiessynthesized from single amino acidsregulate states of arousal and affect feelings and to motivate behaviorMAO monoamine oxidaseis enzyme that interrupts activity of all monoaminesFOUR types of monoamines neurotransmitters epinephrine norepinephrine serotonin dopamineEpinephrinefound primarily in the body small amounts in brain which causes a burst of energy after an exciting event initially called adrenaline basis for adrenaline rushNorepinephrineinvolved in states of arousal and vigilance alertnessuseful for finetuning clarity of attention heightened sensitivity to whats going on around youinhibits responsiveness to weak synaptic inputs and strengthens or maintains responsive to strong synaptic inputsSerotoninemotional states impulse control and dreamingLow levels sad and anxious food cravings aggressionoDrugs block reuptake of serotonin treat depression OCD eating disorders obesityLSD structure similarEnters brain and binds with serotonin receptors
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