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Chapter 2

Psy100, Chapter2

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Chapter 2Scientific InquiryScientific MethodGoals what when what cause whyA theory is a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events It is usually very generalized A hypothesis is a specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct The hypothesis serves as a direct test of the theory by collecting objective dataReplicationvalidity is confirmed by successful replication If the research is done in absolute objective means the same result should be reached as long as the experiment is repeated properly Three Types of Research Experimental DesignAn experiment is defined as a study wherein variables are both measured and manipulated with the investigator having maximal control over the situation The benefit of experiments is that they allow causal relationship between two variables to be studied However experiment suffers from that they are often set in artificial environment The more control the more causality is ensured and confound variables eliminated Confound is anything affecting a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary between replications of the experiment Random assignment is the only way to escape selection bias and ensure equivalency of group Correlational DesignA correlation study examines how variables are naturally related in the real world without any attempt to
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