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Chapter 4

psy100, Chapter4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 4Brain StructureSpinal CordThe spinal cord is described as a rope of neural tissue that runs inside the hollows of the vertebrae from just above the pelvis and into the base of the skull The cord is composed of two distinct tissue types the gray matter is dominated by the cell bodies of neurons and the white matter consists mostly of axons and the fatty sheaths It handles spinal reflex Brainstem A section of the bottom of the brain that houses the most basic programs of survival breathing swallowing vomiting urination and orgasm It also handles a whole complement of reflexes basic survival behaviour It contains network of neurons known collectively as the reticular formation that project up into the cerebral cortex and affect general arousal and sleep CerebellumThe cerebellum is a large protuberance at the back of the brainstem that is essential for smooth coordinated movement and balance HypothalamusThe hypothalamus is the master regulatory structure of the brain It is responsible for regulating the vital functions body temperature bodily rhythms blood pressure glucose level and impelling fundamental drives thirst hunger aggression lust It governs sexual and reproductive development and behaviour as it has central control of the endocrine system Thalamus It is the gateway to the brain that receives almost all incoming sensory information except smell before it reaches the cortex It filters through all the information and direct our attention HippocampusThe hippocampus is important for the formation of certain types of memory It seems important in the storage of new memory as it creates new interconnections within the cerebral cortex with each new experience It is suggested that the hippocampus is involved in how we remember the arrangement of places and objects in space It is also shown that the structure can change in size with increased use Amygdala A structure that serves a vital role in our learning to associate things with emotional responses and for processing emotional information It is also linked to evaluating the emotional significance of facial expressionsBasal GangliaThe basal ganglia is a system of subcortical structures that are important for the initiation of planned movement Damage can lead to symptoms similar to the rigidity of Parkinsons disease and the trouble to learned new movement Cerebral CortexThe cerebral cortex is the outer layer of brain tissue that forms the convoluted surface of the brain It is the site of all thoughts detailed perceptions and other higher functions Along with its four lobes it has the corpus callosum to bridge the two hemispheres together Occipital Lobe
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