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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Textbook Summary

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Chapter 12 Social PsychologyHow Do Attitudes Guide Behaviour o Attitudes our evaluations of objects events or ideas Plays an important role in how we evaluate and interact with other people1 We Form Attitudes Through Experience and Socialization o People develop negative attitudes about new objects o Mere Exposure Effect The more a person is exposed to something the more she will like it o Attitudes can be conditioned Operant conditioning also shapes attitude o Attitudes are also shaped by socialization2 Behaviours Are Consistent With Strong Attitudes o The stronger and more personally relevant the attitude the more likely it will predict behaviour be consistent over time and be resistant to changeo The more specific the attitude the more predictive it is o Explicit Attitude attitudes that people can report o Implicit Attitude attitudes that influence our feelings and behaviour at an unconscious level Accessed with little conscious effort or control3 Discrepancies Lead to Dissonance o Cognitive Dissonance an uncomfortable mental state due to conflicts between attitudes or between attitudes and behaviour o Causes anxiety and tension and motivates people to reduces the dissonance and relieve displeasure o Postdecisional Dissonanceo Motivates person to focus on the positives of the choice they wanted and the negatives of the choices they gave away o Attitude Changeo One way to get people to change their attitude is to change their behaviours first using as few incentives as possible o Justifying Efforto Resolve the dissonance by inflating the importance of the group and their commitment to it If they sacrificed ex family so much to join a group people believe the group ex Nazi must be very important 4 Attitudes Can be Changed Through Persuasion o Persuasion active and conscious effort to change attitudes through the transmission of a messageo Elaboration Likelihood Model a theory of how persuasive messages lead to attitude changes o Central Route people pay attention to arguments consider all the info and leads to strong attitudes that last over time o Peripheral Route minimal attention and leads to a moreimpulsive action
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